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The Chemical Structure Of Deoxyribonucleic Acid (DNA)

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DNA is a polymeric molecule i.e made up of many building blocks called monomers. What is the monomeric unit called and how many different monomers are there
Nucleotides. Billions make up a strand but there are only four nucleotides (adenine, thymine, cytosine, and guanine)
State the main structural difference between purine and pyrimidine bases
Purines are double ringed and pyrimidines are single ringed
Adenine
Purine
Guanine
Purine
Uracil
Pyrimidine
Thymine
Pyrimidine
Cytosine
Pyrimidine
Explain why a purine must be paired with a pyrimidine in the DNA double helix
The molecular distance from Adenine combined with Thymine is the same as the molecular distance from Guanine combined with Cytosine. This gives a uniform distance that can fill up the center of the helix
Determine how many hydrogen bonds are found between guanine and cytosine
3
Determine how many hydrogen bonds are found between adenine and thymine
2
State the type of bond involved in the formation of a chain of nucleotides
Phosphodiester bond
Explain what is meant by the anti-parallel arrangement in the DNA double helix
One strand (leading)is 5' to 3' and the other strand (lagging) is 3' to 5'. They are concurrent
Describe what 5' and 3' refer to
5 prime carbon and 3 prime carbon. 3' hydroxyl and 5' phosphate group to form phosphodiester bond. Refers to the sugar itself