Upgrade to remove ads
Public Health Exam 3
Terms in this set (39)
What are some of Rosemond's biggest challenges in her role within health equity?
-People don't often understand how complex the work is
-Some people don't recognize she is an expert in health equity because her work is hidden in diversity, but you can overlap these fields.
What is the relevance of a maternal and child health MPH?
○ How you are brought into the world makes a difference in how you grow up
-Different factors such as access to health care, education, employment, economic opportunities, social support, and resources to meet daily needs influence maternal health behaviors
-The determinants that influence maternal health also affect pregnancy outcomes and infant/child health
-Racial and ethnic disparities exist in infant mortality and can be partly attributed to disparities in social determinants of health
○ There are a lot of disparities and inequities in health, an MPH in MCH can help reduce these inequities
○ MCH MPH develop public health programs & policies that focus on health promotion, health care equity, disease prevention, and primary care services.
What are the different ways to describe health equity?
○ "Health equity is achieved when every person has the opportunity
to 'attain his or her full health potential' and no one is 'disadvantaged
from achieving this potential because of social position or other
socially determined circumstances.'"
-Health inequities are reflected in differences in length of life; quality
of life; rates of disease, disability, and death; severity of disease;
and access to treatment. - CDC
What are the most common causes of death for children under the age of 5?
○ Lack of access to health facilities, safe water, sanitation
○ Complications during delivery
○ Hunger and poverty
-Undernutrition accounts for 35% of disease burden for children under 5
○ Diarrhea, hookworm, pneumonia, malaria
○ Health of the mother
What is kangaroo mother care and how does it help?
○ Holding infants skin-to-skin with mother
○ Provides warmth, breastfeeding stimulation, safety, and affection
What are the short term health concerns for premature or low birth weight babies?
Respiratory distress, increased risk of infection, difficulty keeping warm, problems with feeding
What are the long term health concerns for premature or low birth weight babies?
heart problems (heart disease), chronic lung disorders + respiratory issues, subnormal growth, obesity, cognitive issues (particularity attention), psychological well-being (behavioral issues), sleep apnea, hearing loss
What role does female literacy and education play in health?
○ Knowledge/skills to reduce a childs risk of malnutrition, illness, death
○ More education -> fewer problems accessing health care
○ More education -> more likely to receive appropriate preventative care and therapeutic medical services
○ More education -> increased family planning behaviors
○ More education -> decrease in poverty
○ Overall, literacy = less children
What are the two best indicators of child health and survival?
Birth weight + period of gestation at delivery
What benefits does exclusive breastfeeding have for the infant?
○ Protection against gastrointestinal infections & provides antibodies to help fight viruses & bacteria
○ Reduces risk of asthma, allergies, ear infections, respiratory illness, and diarrhea
○ Ideal nutrition/energy source
○ Skin-to-skin contact with mother
What is deinstitutionalization and how has it both positively and negatively impacted our society?
○ The formal movement to move people out of asylums
○ It was successful for people who have good support systems & treatment is effective
○ However others end up homeless, or in jail, prison, and state-run hospitals
What biological risk factors are linked to mental illness within children?
○ Intrauterine exposure to alcohol or cigarettes
○ Environmental exposure to lead
○ Malnutrition of pregnancy
○ Birth trauma
○ Specific chromosomal symptoms
How was Dr. Lando treated specifically during the Rosenhan study? How were most pseudo-patients treated, specifically?
○ He thought the hospital facilities were excellent, they treated him great, therapy was a non-directive milieu-type approach, contact with staff was great and there was insight and concern shown by patients
○ There were psychological tests, physical exams, group therapy sessions, and there was ability to get ward restrictions.
○ Never depersonalized, treated as an intelligent person, staff listened to suggestions.
What mental disorder is most commonly diagnosed in children?
What mental disorder is most prevalent in adults?
Anxiety & mood disorder
Why are evaluations are conducted?
○ To establish the impact of a program
○ To see if a program achieved its outcomes
○ To make informed decisions about a program, policy, or product
○ To determine the need for a program
○ To improve a program
○ To figure out how a program can be or has been implemented
○ To determine a program's merit, worth or value
○ To examine how a program works
○ To distinguish what works from what doesn't
What is the first step in conducting an evaluation?
To ask, "what do you want to know about your program?"
What is summative evaluation?
- program judgement
- Often at the end
- Focus on "Impact", "resutls", "findings", "outcomes"
- What happened?
What is formative evaluation?
- Program design or improvement
- During the beginning and middle of implementation
- Focus on process
- What is happening?
What is process evaluation?
- Documents & analyzes early development and actual implementation of strategy or program
- Has a direct relationship with summative
- How did it happen? Did it go as planned?
What are stakeholders and what role do they play in evaluations?
○ Stakeholders are people or organizations invested in the program, interested in the results of the evaluation, and/or with a stake in what will be done with the results of the evaluations
○ Stakeholders can help (or hinder) an evaluation before it is conducted, while it is being conducted, and after the results are collected and ready for use.
○ They include those involved in program operations: management & staff, those who are served/affected by the program: patients, community members, and more
What is undernutrition?
nutritional deficiency resulting from lack of food or from the inability of the body to convert or absorb it
- about 1/3 of the world has it
What is malnutrition?
lack of proper nutrition; inadequate or unbalanced nutrition
What is the two-way relationship between infection and nutritional status?
- Poor nutrition reduces immunity & increases susceptibility to and length of infections/illness -> infections affect ability to eat and/or absorb food
Why is the science of nutrition so messy?
1. It's not practical to run randomized trials for most big nutrition questions
2. Nutrition researchers have to rely on observational studies, which are rife with uncertainty
3. Many nutrition studies rely on widely imprecise food surveys
4. People and food are diverse, different bodies have different reactions to the same food
5. Conflict of interest is a huge problem in nutrition research
What factors influence obesity besides an individuals caloric intake and energy expenditure?
○ Family history/genes
○ Family lifestyle
○ Tobacco and alcohol abuse
○ Lack of sleep
○ Gut bacteria?
What is the "double burden of disease" concept? How are low-income countries impacted?
○ Having the issue of infectious and chronic non-communicable diseases at the same time
- Can be the coexistence of undernutrition along with overweight and obesity, or diet-related noncommunicable diseases.
○ Low income countries don't have access to effective health care, as well as often experience undernutrition raising their likelihood for these diseases.
What percentage of US children have a body max index (BMI) that is considered obese?
What percentage of US children have a BMI that falls into the categories of being overweight or obese?
What are some interventions that are addressing obesity at an institutional, school, or community level?
○ Institutional: Sit-stand desks, walking meetings, break during day for exercise, food access
○ School: farm to school network, having food delivered directly from farms to support local & healthy eating
What event launched the environmental movement that led to wide-ranging legislation?
Mainly the publication of the book Silent Spring, as well as the horrible environment status in the 60's and 70's
Why are officials concerned about BPA and phthalates?
BPA can mimic estrogen, causing early puberty in females and abnormalities in male and female sex organs.
Phthalates interfere with testosterone synthesis in males, causing low sperm counts and abnormalities in the development in male sex organs
Why is the regulation of toxic chemical in the US a very slow process
○ There is a large volume of potentially toxic chemicals being manufactured in the US
○ Toxicity testing on any single chemical can be expensive and time-consuming
Why are children at a greater risk of negative health effects from environmental pollutants compared to populations of other ages?
○ The pollution is going to affect them as they're growing up & developing, also it's going to get worse as time goes on.
Why is lead especially harmful?
○ It is a metal known to harm the brain and nervous system, especially those of children
- Even low levels of lead have been shown to slow a child's development leading to learning and behavior issues
○ It also damages red blood cells and kidneys
What are some acute health effects of air pollution?
Headache, nausea/vomiting, dizziness, worsening of asthma symptoms, eye/nose/throat irritation
What are some chronic health effects of air pollition?
cancer, liver damage, kidney damage, central nervous system damage
What are some specific ways climate change could lead to human impacts?
○ Water issues: too much -> floods, too little -> droughts
○ Vecterborne disease & zoonotic diseases increasing
○ Food supplies lacking because of dry land
○ Air pollution -> smog, higher temperature, co2 levels rising and plants produce more pollen, dry areas become dryer (wildfire)
○ Extreme heat waves- lead to increased risk of death esp. among elderly
○ Increase in violent conflict due to need to relocate, resource allocation
○ Human migration (refugees, internally placed people), lack of public health & medical infrastructure
What is the relationship between diet & climate change?
○ Eating meat and dairy causes more resource use + can contribute to climate change
-buying local and organic food can help
○ Changes in temp. + precipitation from climate change can reduce crop yields & lead to undernutrition.
You might also like...
Health and Human Development
bbh 316 exam #4
Other sets by this creator
Respiratory Physiology Definition
Renal Physiology Definitions
Physiology Exam 2 Definitions
Phys Exam 1