Ap Biology study guide
Terms in this set (34)
-Compounds that contain carbon and usually hydrogen.
-Examples: Carbohydrates, proteins, lipids, and nucleic acids
-Compounds that, for the most part, do not contain carbon.
-Exceptions: Carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide, and others.
-Makes a compound hydrophilic and polar.
-Examples: aldehyde(C=O group is at end of chain) and ketone( C=O group is anywhere but at end of chain).
-A carbonyl group with an- OH at the end.
-Found in amino acids.
-Compounds containing carboxyl groups are known as carboxylic acids
-Is present in compounds known as alcohols
-The structure is R-OH
-Makes a compound polar and Hydrophilic
-Server as a cellular energy source( ADP, ATP, and GDP)
-An organic compound used by cells as long-term energy stores or building blocks
-Is hydrophobic and insoluble in water
-Most important lipids: Fats,oils, steroids, phospholipids.
-Are made by combining glycerol and three fatty acids
-More effective means of storing energy than carbohydrates.
-Two main types: saturated and unsaturated.
-Contains no double bonds(animal fat).
-Associated with heart disease and atherosclerosis.
-Contains one or more double bonds(plant fat)
- A lipid composed of four carbon rings that look like chicken-wire fencing in pictorial representations.
-Examples: cholesterol, testosterone, estrogen, progesterone.
-A lipid formed by combining a glycerol molecule with two fatty acids and a phosphate group.
-Has a hydrophobic tail and a hydrophilic head.
-Is the major component of cell membranes.
- Simplest carbohydrate.
-Monosaccharide with 5 carbons are used in RNA and ATP.
-A sugar consisting of two monosaccharides bound together.
-Examples: sucrose, maltose, and lactose.
-A carbohydrate containing 3 or more monosaccharides linked together.
-Examples: Starch(storage in plants), glycogen(storage in animals), cellulose(used by plants for cell wall formation), and chitin(part of exoskeletons of arthropods).
Primary structure of a Protein
-The order of the amino acids that make up the protein.
Secondary Structure of a protein
-The three-dimensional arrangement of a protein caused by hydrogen bonding at regular intervals along the polypeptide backbone.
Tertiary Structure of a Protein
- The three-dimensional arrangement of a protein caused by interaction among the various R groups of the amino acids involved.
Quaternary Structure of a Protein
-The arrangement of the separate polypeptide subunits into a single protein.
-A protein that acts as an organic catalyst to speed reactions by lowering the activation energy needed for the reaction to take place.
-Effectiveness can be affected by temperature, pH, the concentration of substrate involved, and the concentration of enzyme involved.
pH Number Scale
-Runs from 1-14.
-0= strongly acidic
14= strongly basic
-A reaction that breaks down compound by the addition of water.
Dehydration Synthesis Reaction
- A reaction in which two compounds are bought together with water released as a product.
-A reaction that requires the input of energy to occur.
- A reaction that gives off energy as a product.
- A reaction involving the transfer of electrons.
-A simple cell with no nucleus and no membrane-bound organelles.
-The genetic material is found in a region of the cell known as the nucleoid.
-Divides by binary fission.
-contains a nucleus, which functions as the control center of the cell and stores DNA.
-Can be unicellular or multicellular.
-Contains membrane-bound organelles.
-The selective barrier around a cell composed of a double layer of phospholipids.
-A wall or barrier that functions to shape and protect cells.
-Present in all prokaryotes.
-The host organelle for protein synthesis.
-Built in the nucleolus.
Smooth Endoplasmic Reticulum
- A membrane-bound organelle involved in lipid synthesis, detoxification, and carbohydrate metabolism.
-Liver cells contain many SER.
-Contains no ribosomes.
Rough Endoplasmic Reticulum
-Known as rough because of the presence of ribosomes on the cytoplasmic surface.
-Proteins produced by this organelle are often secreted by the cell and carried to the Golgi apparatus.
-Modifies proteins, lipids, and other macromolecules.
-After modification, these" glycoproteins" are sent to other areas of the cell based on the modifications made.