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17 terms

Plasma Membrane and Energy

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Phagocytosis
Literally "cell-eating." A process of bringing relatively large materials into a cell by means of wrapping extensions of the plasma membrane (pseudopodia) around the materials and fusing the extensions together.
Receptor-mediated Endocytosis
A form of endocytosis that is dependent on receptors, whose role is to bind to specific molecules and then hold onto them.
Pinocytosis
Literally "cell drinking." A form of endocytosis that brings into the cell as small volume of extracellular fluid and the materials suspended in it.
Osmosis
The net movement of water across a semipermeable membrane from an area of a higher concentration to lower.
First Law of Thermodynamics
States that energy cannot be destroyed, only transformed.
Second Law of Thermodynamics
States that energy trasnfer always results in a greater amount of disoder in the universe.
Endergonic
Reactions in which the products contain more energy than the reactants.
Exergonic
Reactions in which the products contain less energy than the reactants.
Coupled Reaction
A chemical reaction in which an exergonic reaction powers an endergonic reaction.
Substrate
Substance that is being worked on by an enzyme.
Active Site
The portion of an enzyme that binds with and transforms a substrate
Coenzymes
Molecules other than amino acids that facilitate the work of enzymes by binding with them. Vitamins are an example of these.
Metabolic Pathway
A set of enzymatically controlled steps that result in the completion of a product or process in an organism.
Hypertonic Solution
A fluid that has a higher concentration of solutes than another causing water to flow out of a cell
Hypotonic Solution
Water flows into cell; ideal environment for plant cells.
Isotonic Solution
Two solutions that have equal concentations of solutes.
Allosteric Regulation
The regulation of an enzyme's activity by means of a molecule binding to a site on the enzyme other than its active site.