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English unit 3 and 4
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Terms in this set (78)
is the main character in a story. The plot often revolves around the actions and decisions of this character. This character faces the main conflict in the story. Typically, this character has positive qualities, such as bravery, selflessness, honor, or kindness. Therefore, readers tend to think of them as heroes or heroines. However, this character can possess negative qualities and still be central to the story
is a character who opposes the protagonist. In many cases, this character is the source of conflict or struggle that the protagonist has to face. Readers often tend to associate this character with villains. But this character is not necessarily bad people. This character might simply have an objective that goes against what the protagonist desires.
show a gradual change in their personality over the course of a story. Usually, a this character is also a major character. The change the character undergoes is important to resolving the story's conflict.
tend to show little or no change in their personalities over the course of a story. They remain much the same throughout.
have complex personalities. In fact, some aspects of this character's personality might contradict with other aspects. Such a trait can make this type of character unpredictable. A reader might often be surprised by how this character reacts to certain situations.
are predictable in nature. They tend to show just one dominant trait in their personality throughout a story.
Some authors directly state the physical and mental aspects of a character in their stories. It's the easiest way for a reader to learn about a character.
Sometimes authors do not explicitly state the traits of a character. Instead, the reader must interpret the character's physical and mental traits by analyzing his or her thoughts, words, and actions
people who raise objections
swaying from one thought to another
features or characteristics of the face
ride on a horse
something that dulls pain and causes relaxation
an outburst of emotions or violence
excessively talkative, usually on insignificant matters
chains used to restrain a person, usually a prisoner
run down, in a state of decay
a person, often of importance or high rank
an extended metaphor. It develops an overarching symbolism throughout an entire novel or literary text. For example, John Bunyan's The Pilgrim's Progress is a spiritual ______. The entire story symbolizes how Christians should lead their lives.
a type of universal symbol. They are well-known characters, objects, or situations that appear in stories across cultures. For example, the snake represents evil in many cultures.
is often a reference to another work of literature or a historical person or event. It can refer to the Bible, mythology, or other well-known true or fictional stories.
For example, in Jane Eyre, the writer makes many of these to John Bunyan's The Pilgrim's Progress. The Pilgrim's Progress is about leading an ideal Christian life against all odds.
who wrote The Death of Ivan Ilyich 1885 (political satire)
the use of humor, irony, exaggeration, or ridicule to expose and criticize people's stupidity or vices, particularly in the context of contemporary politics and other topical issues.
Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels
published The Communist Manifesto
Ivan Ilyich Golovin
the protagonist of the story and a judge at the Court of Justice in St. Petersburg, Russia
Ivan Ilyich's nurse and also the assistant to his butler
Ivan Ilyich's closest friend and a fellow judge at the Court of Justice in St. Petersburg
Praskovya Fedorovna Golovina
Ivan Ilyich's wife and the mother of his two children
a judge at the Court of Justice in St. Petersburg, along with Ivan Ilyich and Peter Ivanovich
the son of Ivan Ilyich and Praskovya Fedorovna
the daughter of Ivan Ilyich and Praskovya Fedorovna
being particular and attentive to details and good behavior
the quality of being pleasant and appealing
to prevent something from occurring
generous and bighearted toward another person who is lesser in authority or standing
a position that requires minimal work but provides a good reputation and financial benefits
nervous, fainthearted, or lacking in confidence
constantly complaining and whining
implied; expressed or understood without using words
a peaceful and favorable environment; the desirable or useful quality of a place
sophisticated behavior; the ability to act or speak suitably in social situations
Which of these works of fiction is based on Leo Tolstoy's time serving in the Crimean War and set in the city where he and his military unit were based?
A repetition of a the same pattern of words, often within a sentence. This device shows that two or more ideas in the sentence have the same level of importance. Parallelism also gives balance to a piece of writing and makes it easier to read. for example: When I go to a ballgame, I like to (eat) a hotdog and (buy) a foam finger.
for, and, nor, but, or, yet, so
either/or, neither/nor, both/and, not only/but also
words used to connect ideas
I like playing tennis more than I like playing basketball. this sentence is an example of a
Our English teacher told us that we must be on time for class, submit our assignments on time, and participate in class discussions. this sentence is an example of a
Persuasive essays often include facts and evidence to support the viewpoints presented. this is called
The writer tries to argue a point and convince readers based not on rational logic but on feelings, even potentially irrational reactions. Effectively can be made by including personal stories and anecdotes. For example, presenting personal experiences with racism can have more of an effect on readers than providing statistics about racial bias.
a supposition or proposed explanation made on the basis of limited evidence as a starting point for further investigation
Persuasive essays are intended to make an effective argument. To do so, the points of debate must be presented in a clear and logical way. Readers should be able to understand the main points of the essay easily and determine the optional perspectives at play
Persuasive essays usually use this voice. Writers don't use the first person because they want readers to see their essays as detached and fair and not as personal, biased opinion. Readers are more likely to be convinced by the argument that the writer is putting forth if it seems to be based on facts.
refers to a writer criticizing the character of the person or people who propose an opposing idea or argument instead of debating the actual argument or claim. for example: Students should protest against the principal's policy on after-prom parties because he's too old to understand what teenagers want.
writers use this when they compare two ideas that are neither similar nor connected. This approach is meant to divert the reader's attention from the main topic. for example: Investing in the stock market is like gambling in a casino. There's no guarantee that you'll profit.
Writers use this when they make broad conclusions based on inadequate information. this also stem from people's biases and prejudices. Here's an example of this about women: My mother and aunts are bad at parallel parking. My mother and aunts are women. So, all women are bad at parallel parking.
Are used to distract readers from the original topic. They present new, irrelevant, or unconnected ideas. Politicians often use this method to deflect questions they don't want to answer. For example: Yes, the president has made some mistakes during his term. Our former presidents made mistakes too. Making mistakes is only human and it is a good practice to forgive people.
straw man argument
A writer uses this in an essay by setting up and attacking an opposing argument that was never put forth by others. The goal is to get readers to dismiss the opposition as flawed. Here's an example this type of argument: They want to allocate more funds to healthcare and education. I don't understand why they are so unpatriotic that they would cut funds for the military and leave this nation defenseless.
the writer presents readers with only two choices for solving a problem (in reality, many different solutions may exist). The writer clearly opposes one choice and presents it as unacceptable. The writer supports the other choice and wants readers to support it. Therefore, the writer presents that choice in a good light. For example: Spending time studying in the library every day after school is better than never cracking a book.
is circulating certain false ideas or statements to publicize a specific social or political cause, or to promote political leaders, government policies, or religious groups.
An appeal to logic
appeals to the emotions, needs, and values of readers
an ethical appeal to readers in an argumentative essay. Writers put their own character, credibility, and reliability on the line to convince readers of their stand. If you can understand the writer's character and credibility through the essay, if the writer respectfully addresses opposing arguments without mocking them, and if the sources and facts cited seem ethical and reliable, the writer is being persuasive through this
make amends to (someone) for loss or harm suffered; compensate
a messenger or representative, especially one on a diplomatic mission
Day of Infamy
On December 7, 1941, the Japanese attacked the US naval base at Pearl Harbor. The next day, Roosevelt made his _____ speech condemning the attack and declaring war on Japan.
Franklin D. Roosevelt
the 32nd president of the United States. He is best known for his New Deal initiative, which helped to propel the nation's flagging economy. He was the president as the United States entered World War II.
explains the main idea of the narrative
granted other writers freedom of expression. Soon after, several books that had been banned earlier on charges of obscenity were published.
use i before e except after c
a spelling rule
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