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APPROACHES TO FOREIGN/SECOND LANGUAGE ACQUISITION
Terms in this set (35)
Instructed Second Language Acquisition
This discipline attempts to answer two questions: Is Instruction beneficial to Second Language Learning? And if so, How can the effectiveness of Instruction be optimized?
The oral-situational approach
This Approach is Based on a structural syllabus; wqmethodology built around present practice -produce (PPP). It was based on a behaviorist learning theory. According to this theory, grammar is learned inductively. Recently, it has drawn on skill - building theory.
The notional-functional approach
Based on a notional functional syllabus; methodology built around present-practise-produce. These syllabuses consist of a list of functions (e.g. apologizing and requesting) and notions (e.g. past time and possibility) together with the linguistic exponents required to realize them in communication.
The Study of language use in social contexts
It maintains that the cognitive processing of language occurs relatively automatically an unconsciously.
The methodology employed is that of present-practise-produce (PPP), where 'present' refers to the provision of explicit information about a grammatical structure (directed at declarative knowledge), 'practise' refers to the use of exercises that involve controlled production of the target structure and 'produce' involves the performance of tasks designed to engage learners in real-life behaviour and to complete automatisation.
Learning is a Socially mediated process in which more expert individuals help scafold novice learners into higher levels of performance.
Consist of Linguistic Competence, Social Competence, Discourse Competence, Strategic Competence
It refers to knowledge of the Second language morphosyntax, lexis, and phonology
It refers to learner´s ability to use the language appropriately in various social context.
It refers to learners´ knowledge of how to produce coherent and cohesive written and oral language.
It consists of Learner´s ability to deal with communication difficulties.
Knowledge that learners are aware of and can retrieve consciously from memory. For example, learners can explain the grammatical rules of the Language
Knowledge of Language. Learners are aware of the language unconsciously and can retrieve consciously from memory. For example, learners can speak the language but may not explain the grammatical rules of the Language
This theory seeks to test if explicit knowledge can become implicit knowledge.
The Goal of this Approach is for learners to develop implicit knowledge of linguistic forms that will enable them to engagein meaningful communication.
"the ability of an organism to adapt its behaviour as a result of acquiring information about associations or contingencies that exist between events in its environment".
The Monitor Model
A general term for an approach to second language learning proposed by S. Krashen. The Monitor Model consists of five interrelated constructs, which the author labels hypotheses:
1. The acquisition/learning hypothesis.
2. The monitor hypothesis.
3. The natural order hypothesis .
4. The input hypothesis.
5. The affective filter hypothesis.
-Unconscious process similar to Chomsky's language acquisition device (LAD) that is, identical to the way children develop ability in their first language
Conscious knowledge of a second language, knowing, being aware, and being able to articulate the rules.
Two key claims
1. Adults can access same LAD as children
2. Learning and acquisition are separate processes: learning cannot become acquisition
The Monitor Hypothesis
Learning serves as a monitor on output that is initiated by the 'acquired' system. At best it provides a 'fine-tuning' of production. Implication for teaching: focus on communication, not rule-learning.
The Monitor Hypothesis
The Monitor is only used when three conditions are met:
i. Enough time is available
ii. There is a focus on form
iii. There is knowledge of rule
Monitor is only available in production
The Natural Order Hypothesis
L2 learners acquire grammatical structure in a predictable order.
Originally one natural order was posited but given the difficulty in assessing comparability of structures, multiple streams of development are assumed.
The Input Hypothesis
Consists of four parts and assumes NOH is correct.
i. IH concerns acquisition, not learning
ii. Acquisition occurs by understanding language that contains structure just beyond current level of competence "i+1". This is done through context or extralinguistic information, i.e. acquisition is caused by understanding.
iii. When input is understood and there is enough of it, i + 1 will be provided automatically (simplified input important).
iv. Production ability emerges, it is not taught directly (important implications for teaching).
CI is receptive language that is slightly ahead of the learner's current state of grammatical knowledge, referred to as "i & 1".
2. Speech emerges from competence built from comprehensible input.
3. Grammar knowledge is automatically provided by input that is both comprehensible and of sufficient quantity.
Affective Filter Hypothesis
There is an affective filter that subconsciously screens incoming language based on learner's motives, needs, attitudes and emotional states. The AF is outside the LAD proper
Negotiation of meaning
It is characterized by interactional modifications such as comprehension checks and requests for clarification. The goal is to make the input more comprehensible
Refers to making a connection between form and meaning (not the same as perception of a form or noticing )
It refers to any conscious registration of a form, but not necessarily with any meaning attached to it (Schmidt, 1990) - similar to perception
It refers to that subset of the input that has been processed in working memory and made available for further processing (i.e., possible incorporation into the developing system)
Focus on form
Instruction that seeks to isolate linguistic forms in order to teach and test them one at a time e.g., structural or synthetic syllabus
"parts of the language are taught separately and step by step so that acquisition is a process of gradual accumulation of parts until the whole structure of language has been built up...." Wilkins 1976 in Long & Robinson (1998)
Focus on meaning
people of all ages learn languages best, inside or outside the classroom, not by treating the languages as an object of study, but by experiencing them as a medium of communication. (Long & Robinson, 1998, p 18)
This are Individual Factor that influence L2 acqusition motivation, personality / cognitive style factors beliefs, extroversion / introversion, affective states, anxiety, risk-taking, age, aptitude
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