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GI Clicker Questions

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What is the innermost layer of the GI tract?
mucosa
What is the outermost layer of the GI tract?
serosa
Which layer of the GI tract does food stuff come in contact with?
mucosa
The duodenum is part of:
small intestine
Where is the pyloric sphincter located?
between the stomach and duodenum
Where is the ileocecal sphincter located?
between the ileum and cecum
What region of the GI tract does the pancreas secrete digestive juices into?
duodenum
What region of the GI tract does the liver and gallbladder secrete digestive juices into?
duodenum
What are the 6 types of secretory cells in the gastric glands?
mucous
parietal
chief
G
D
ECL
Where does digestion of carbohydrates start?
mouth via salivary amylase
Are there any enzymes in the stomach that break down carbohydrates?
no
Where does digestion of lipids begin?
stomach via lingual lipase
Why does digestion of lipids not begin in the mouth?
lingual lipase is not activated in the mouth; it's not activated until it reaches an acidic environment (stomach/pepsin)
Where does digestion of proteins begin?
stomach via pepsin (activated via HCl from pepsinogen)
Which cells secrete pepsin?
chief cells
Pernicious anemia is an autoimmune disease that destroys parietal cells. How does this lead to anemia?
intrinsic factor can't be produced so you can't absorb B12 -> B12 functions to stimulate erythropoises and is involved in folate metabolism (plays role in RBC formation)
How can PPIs cause subnormal levels of B12?
PPIs inhibit protons from being secreted so decrease HCl (HCl helps release B12 from food)
How can PPIs increase risk of infection?
stomach will have a decreased acidic environment thus more microbes and bacteria will live
What enzymes are responsible for CHO digestion in the duodenum?
pancreatic amylase
lactase
sucrase
maltase
alpha dextrinase
How can enterokinase (enteropeptidase) deficiency lead to protein malnutrition?
you need enterokinase to activate all enzymes ultimately (first trypsinogen to trypsin which then activates others)
What enzymes are responsible for protein digestion in duodenum?
enterokinase
aminopeptidase
dipeptidase
trypsin
chymotrypsin
elastase
carboxypeptidase
What enzymes are responsible for lipid digestion in the duodenum?
pancreatic lipase
Why will bile deficiency lead to steatorrhea?
besides bile being an emulsifying agent, it also forms micelles which carries lipids from the lumen of the duodenum to the wall of the duodenum so they can be absorbed
Why will ilial resection lead to steatorrhea?
ileum is responsible for reabsorbing bile salts which then get back to liver via hepatic portal vien; 75% goes back to liver and only remakes 25%; if you remove ileum, then you can't reabsorb those bile salts-> liver has to make up for that and it can't keep up with the demands
What effect does CCK and secretin have on digestion?
increase pancreatic secretions
increase secretion of bile
Orilast is a drug that promotes weight loss by preventing the digestion and absorption of fat in food. What is its MoA?
inhibition of pancreatic lipase
Why does Orilast show up in food?
fat is not digested or absorbed in the colon, therefore what is not absorbed in the small intestine shows up in the stool
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