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Terms in this set (14)
1.Absorption is when the unchanged drug moves from the site of administration to the blood. Distribution is the irreversible transfer of the drug from one location to another. Metabolism is the modification of the drug by enzymes and the drug and its metabolites are excreted from the body in urine or feces. Metabolism and excretion
are both pathways of drug elimination from the body
Outline the processes of absorption, distribution, metabolism, and excretion.
2. The reason it is important to know whether a drug is lipid or water soluble is because water soluble drugs have a harder time crossing membranes than the lipid drugs. highly lipid soluble drugs can accumulate in fatty tissues and then leave the tissues so slowly that they circulate in the bloodstream for days after a person has stopped taking the drug.
Why is it important to know whether a drug is lipid or water soluble? What effect would body fat have on the breakdown and elimination of a highly lipid soluble drug?
3. P450 enzymes are the most important enzymes in Phase I metabolism and are primarily responsible for the metabolism (degradation and elimination) of drugs.
What is the role of the P450 enzyme group in drug metabolism?
4. There are a variants of genes which can impact on a way a person responds to a drug for example: if someone has multiple functional copie of the CYP2D6 gene it means they are able to metabolises codeine more effectively and are at a risk of overdosing.
How do genes influence drug metabolism?
5. the first pass effect is when the drug is first metabolise and the concentration of a drug is greatly reduced before it reaches the systemic circulation. It is the fraction of drug lost during the process of absorption which is generally related to the liver and gut wall.
What is the first pass effect?
Briefly describe the ways in which a drug can interact with cells and cellular processes.
7. Agonist drug binds to a receptor and causes a response, whereas the antagonist drug blocks responses.
What is an agonist drug and how does it compare to an antagonist drug?
8.The duration of action of a drug is known as its half life. This is the period of time required for the amount of drug in the body to be reduced by one-half. By Knowing the drugs half life we can give regular doses to build up and maintain a high enough concentration in the blood to be therapeutically effective.
What does the half-life of a drug describe and why is it important?
9.If the majority of the drug is bound to plasma protein then only the unbound fraction can have a biological effect or be metabolised/excreted. Therefore, the degree of binding to plasma proteins significantly influences the pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic properties of a drug. The efficacy of the drug will be related to the exposure to the amount of unbound drug in plasma, i.e. the proportion free to penetrate into surrounding tissues. The bound drug in plasma can also serve as a reservoir for free drug removed by various elimination processes thus prolonging the duration of action. The proportion of binding can also be affected if two drugs are used at the same time because each drug may displace a proportion of the other from being bound to the plasma protein, resulting in a greater proportion of unbound drug.
How does plasma protein binding of a drug affect drug distribution and action?
How does renal failure impact on drug half-life and the risk for drug toxicity?
What does the therapeutic index represent? Why it is important?
How does polypharmacy influence the risk for drug toxicity (at a molecular/cellular level)?
Describe the term 'drug potency' and compare it to 'drug efficacy'.
Distinguish drug tolerance, dependence and withdrawal.
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