40 terms

amendments

10th Amendment Powers not expressly given to federal government by the Constitution are reserved to states or the people. Also known as "reserved powers amendment" or "states' rights amendment" 13th Amendment Abolished slavery. First of three "Reconstruction Amendments" passed after Civil War (1865-70) 14th Amendment (1) All persons born in the U.S. are citizens; (2) no person can be deprived of life, liberty or property without DUE PROCESS OF LAW; (3) no state can deprive a person of EQUAL PROT…
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1st Amendment
Freedom of religion (establishment & free exercise clauses), speech, press, assembly, and petition.
2nd Amendment
Right to arm bears. Supported by National Rifle Association interest group & Republican Party.
3rd Amendment
Housing the Troops
4th Amendment
No "unreasonable" searches and seizures. Exclusionary rule (Weeks v. US, Mapp v. Ohio)
5th Amendment
(1) No Self-Incrimination (Miranda)(2) No Double Jeopardy (defendant cannot be tried again on the same, or similar charges)(3) No deprivation of life liberty or property without "due process of law" (fair treatment)
6th Amendment
The right to counsel in criminal trials. Gideon v. Wainwright held that states must provide indigent defendants with a free lawyer ("public defender"). Right to jury in criminal trials.
7th Amendment
Right to jury in civil trials.
8th Amendment
Government cannot inflict cruel and unusual punishment. Meaning of "cruel" based on "evolving standards of decency that mark the progress of a maturing society." Categorical bans on death penalty: juveniles, retarded, non-murder crimes...
9th Amendment
Unenumerated Rights Amendment. Citizens have unenumerated rights in addition to those stated in the Constitution. Not been developed by Supreme Court. Not everything can be written down.
10th Amendment
Powers not expressly given to federal government by the Constitution are reserved to states or the people. Also known as "reserved powers amendment" or "states' rights amendment"
11th Amendment
One State cannot be sued by another state
12th Amendment
separation of votes for President and Vice President
13th Amendment
Abolished slavery. First of three "Reconstruction Amendments" passed after Civil War (1865-70)
14th Amendment
(1) All persons born in the U.S. are citizens; (2) no person can be deprived of life, liberty or property without DUE PROCESS OF LAW; (3) no state can deprive a person of EQUAL PROTECTION of the laws. Second of three "Reconstruction Amendments" passed after Civil War.
15th Amendment
States cannot deny any person the right to vote because of race. Third of three "Reconstruction Amendments" passed after Civil War. First Voting Rights Amendment (with 19, 24 & 26)
16th Amendment
Power of Congress to tax income
17th Amendment
Established the direct election of senators (instead of being chosen by state legislatures)
18th Amendment
Prohabition
19th Amendment
States cannot deny the right to vote based on gender
20th Amendment
Congress begins on January 30th; President starts on January 20th
21st Amendment
Repeal of Prohabition
22nd Amendment
Limits the president to two terms.
23rd Amendment
Gives Washington DC electoral college votes as if it were a state (DC still has no representation in Congress)
24th Amendment
Abolishes poll taxes
25th Amendment
(1) Succession of VP if president dies or become incapable to do his job.(2) if there is no VP, president must appoint one, and congress must approve
26th Amendment
States cannot deny the right to vote based on age (18+)
27th Amendment
congressional pay raises are not begun until the next election
Admissions Clause
Congress creates new states. If part of an existent state are involved, that state must give permission
Advice and Consent Clause
President must seek advice from Senate and they must give 2/3 consent
Appointments Clause
Congress can give permission for "inferior" officers to be set without consent form Senate
Comity Clause
Congress can determine the "effect thereof" of state laws if they conflict with the laws of other states
Commerce Clause
Congress can regulate commerce
Compact Clause
States cannot act as countries
Contract Clause
Cities and states cannot stop the federal system if a contract is involved
Elastic Clause
Congress can make laws to make laws work(Obama Care)
Full Faith and Credit Clause
States must give other state's laws full faith
Guarantee Clause
State government mirrors federal government
Origination Clause
House writes taxes and budgets but Senate must approve them
Presentment Clause
Bills must be presented to the Executive for final say
Supremacy Clause
Federal laws over State laws
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