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Ch. 17: Troubleshooting Operating Systems **
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Terms in this set (108)
Hardware problems can give you a blank screen on boot-up. What are some of the basic troubleshooting steps you could take?
Make sure everything is plugged in and turned on.
If a PC is more than 30 days old and is giving you a blank screen, what could be the problem?
It has suffered a burn-in failure.
*If a customer smells something, what could that mean? And what should be done?
One of the components has fried. Try replacing RAM, power supply, CPU, hard drive, and motherboard
If a screen says "No boot device detected" what should you do?
Check for any thumb drives or removable drives and make sure the boot order is correct.
***Failure to Boot: Windows XP
pg 601 - 604
What is the recovery console?
Command-line interface boot mode for Windows used to repair a Windows XP system suffering from massive OS corruption or other problems.
What three issues is the Recovery Console great at fixing?
Repairing the MBR, reinstalling the boot files, and rebuilding boot.ini.
How do you repair the MBR using the recovery console?
Type "fixmbr" into the prompt.
How do you repair missing system files (indicated by the error "NTLDR bad or missing") using the recovery console?
Copy these files from the source CD/DVD to the system within the Recovery Console.
How do you rebuild a boot.ini file using the recovery console?
Run the command "bootcfg /rebuild"
What are the two critical boot files that risk corruption in Windows?
bootmgr and bcd (boot configuration data)
Boot loader for Windows XP
What tool can fix corrupted bootmgr and bcd files? And where is it located?
The bcdedit tool, and it's found in the Windows Recovery Environment (WinRE).
What is the Windows Preinstallation Environment (WinPE)?
The installation program for Windows. Has a graphical interface instead of the 16-bit text environment used in previous versions
What is a live DVD?
An installation disk that loads the WinPE directly from the disk into the memory without accessing or modifying a hard drive or solid-state drive.
What is the Windows Recovery Environment (WinRE)?
A set of tools within the WinPE setup that enables you to access troubleshooting and repair features.
What are the three ways in which you can access WinRE in Windows 7?
1. Boot from the Windows installation media and select Repair.
2. Use the Repair Your Computer option in the Advanced Boot Options (f8) menu.
3. Create a system repair disc
How do you access WinRE in Windows 8/8.1?
Use the Recovery applet in Control Panel to create a recovery drive on a 16 GB USB flash drive. Then boot to the drive.
Why is it recommended that you access WinRE from the Windows installation media or recovery drive?
- The hard drive can be damaged.
- Using the Repair Your Computer option requires a local administration password
- Using a bootable disc/USB flash drive avoids malware that may be on the system.
What are the five options within the Windows Vista/7 WinRE?
- Startup Repair
- System Restore
- System Image Recovery/Windows Complete PC Restore
- Windows Memory Diagnostic/Tool
- Command Prompt
What are the main options within the Windows 8/8.1/10 WinRE?
- Turn off your PC
Click on the Troubleshoot option to see three more options:
- Refresh your PC
- Reset your PC
- Advanced options
Click on Advanced options to see another menu:
- System Restore
- System Image Recovery
- Startup Repair
- Command Prompt
- UEFI Firmware Settings (if applicable)
*** Using Windows RE
What is the Startup Repair utility within WinRE?
A troubleshooting option within WinRE that performs a number of boot repairs automatically.
What does the Startup Repair utility do?
- Repairs a corrupted Registry by accessing the backup copy on your hard drive
- Restores critical boot files
- Restores critical system and driver files
- Rolls back any non-working drivers
- Uninstalls any incompatible service packs and patches
- Runs chkdsk
- Runs a memory test to check your RAM
Within the Startup Repair Utility, what does the "View diagnostic and repair details" option do?
Opens the srttrail.txt file that lists what the program found, what it fixed, and what it failed to do.
In Windows 7 and later, the Startup Repair utility starts automatically if _______________________.
your system detects a boot problem.
What does System Restore Utility within WinRE do?
Uses restore points to return your PC to a recent working configuration.
What are restore points?
System snapshots created by System Restore used to restore a malfunctioning system.
What is Force Quit?
A tool in Mac OS X that shows every running application. Accessed by pressing the option + command + esc combination.
What is the "System Image Recovery/Windows Complete PC Restore" Utility within WinRE?
Allows you to restore a system using a system image
What are some of the other options within the System Image Recovery/Windows Complete PC Restore Utility?
You can format and repartition disks. This allows you to remove the old system data and copy the back-up system image to the hard drive.
What is the Windows Memory Diagnostic/Tool Utility within WinRE?
A memory tester that checks for issues with the RAM.
What are the three test options for Windows Memory Diagnostic/Tool Utility?
Basic, Standard, and Extended.
What does the Basic test option do?
Runs a quick, light test.
What does the Standard test option do?
Runs a standard test that takes a couple of minutes, but tests more aggressively than a basic test.
What are the two other options within the Windows Memory Diagnostic/Tool Utility?
Cache and Pass Count
What does the Extended test option do?
Runs a test that takes hours, but will very aggressively test the RAM.
What does the Cache option within the Windows Memory Diagnostic/Tool Utility do?
Enables you to set whether the tests use the CPU's built-in cache. Also overrides the default cache settings for each test type.
What does the Pass Count option within the Windows Memory Diagnostic/Tool Utility do?
Sets the number of times each set of tests will run. The default is 2.
What is the bootrec command?
Repairs the MBR, boot sector, or BCD store.
What is the Command Prompt and Bootrec Utility within WinRE?
A command prompt similar to the regular cmd.exe shell in Windows that contains an extra command, bootrec.
What is the BCD (Boot Configuration Data) store?
It lists the Windows boot options.
What are the repair features of the bootrec command?
- bootrec/fixboot: Rebuilds the boot sector for the active system partion
- bootrec/fixmbr: Rebuilds the master boot record (MBR) for the system partition
- bootrec/scano: Looks for Windows installations not currently in the BCD store and show the results
- bootrec/rebuildmbr: Looks for Windows installations not currently in the BCD store and give you the option to add them.
What is the bcedit tool?
Views and edits the BCD store using import/export switches.
What are the two sections within bcdedit, and what do they do?
- Windows Boot Manager: describes the location of bootmgr
- Windows Boot Loader: describes the location of the winload.exe file.
The bcdedit command supports ______________________.
What is the diskpart tool?
Features commands to work with volumes and partitions.
What does the clean command within diskpart do?
Wipes all partition and volume information off the currently selected disk
What does the Refresh Your PC option in WinRE do?
In Window 8 and later, rebuilds Windows while keeping all user file settings and applications purchased from the Windows Store.
What does the Reset Your PC option in WinRE do?
It kills your system and presents a fresh installation of Windows.
Failure to Boot: Linux
What are the two common boot managers in Linux?
GRUB AND LILO
What is the distinction with LILO?
It's older and doesn't support UEFI BIOS systems.
What do you do if you get a "Missing GRUB/Missing LILO" error message?
Boot to the Live DVD and install it into the memory. Then, run the "sudo grub-install" command along with the location of the boot.
What do you do in the case of a "Missing Graphical Interface" issue?
You have to restore from backup or rebuild from installation media.
___________________ are one of the reasons you'll see a BSoD.
If Window loads properly after removing a faulty device, what should you do?
Go to the manufacture's website and check for updated drivers or replacement drives.
What causes a freeze up during startup? And what should you do?
A device issue. Try one of the Advanced Startup Options.
In Linux, drivers can mess up, causing a ___________________.
What is a kernel panic?
A form of BSoD within Linux.
Kernel panic is Mac OS X is demonstrated by _______________________.
A black or gray screen of death.
What should you do in case of a bad registry?
Restore a good registry copy by using the Last Known Configuration boot option or restore an earlier version using WinRE.
How often is the registry backed up.
Every 10 days.
Where do you find a backed-up Registry file?
Advanced Startup Options
What is the Advanced Startup Option menu?
Menu that can be reached during the boot process that offers advanced OS startup options (such as booting to safe mode or into Last Known Good Configuration)
What is Safe Mode?
A diagnostic boot mode that runs only very basic drivers and turns off virtual memory.
In which case would Window specifically boot to Safe Mode?
If someone set the System Configuration Utility to force Windows to do so.
How do you disable Windows booting to Safe Mode?
Type msconfig into the start | search box to open the System Configuration utility. Then deselect the Safe Boot/Boot to Safe Mode check box.
What is Safe Mode with Networking?
A version of Safe Mode that includes network support. Used to check for problems with network drivers.
What is Safe mode with Command Prompt?
A version of Safe mode that loads a command prompt instead of the typical GUI. Useful if the desktop doesn't display at all (due to bad video drivers or corruption of the explorer.exe program).
What is Enable Boot Logging?
Starts Windows normally and creates a log file of the drivers as they load. The file is named "Ntbtlog.txt" and located in the %SystemRoot% folder.
What is Enable Low-Resolution Mode?
Starts Window normally, but only loads a default VGA driver. If the mode works, it means a faulty or improperly configured video driver.
What is the Last Known Good Configuration option?
Used for new device drivers that cause boot failure after installation. Allows system to revert to a previous configuration to troubleshoot and fix any problems.
What is the Directory Services Restore Mode?
Used to boot Window Server into Safe Mode.
What is Debugging Mode?
Start Windows in kernel debug mode. The computer has to be connected to another in order to debug.
What is the Disable Automatic Restart on System Failure option?
Stops the computer from automatically rebooting after a BSoD.
What is the Disable Driver Signature Enforcement option?
Used to get Windows to load older drivers with low-level features.
What is the Start Window Normally Option?
Simply starts Windows.
What is the Reboot option?
Performs a soft reboot of the computer.
What is the Return to OS Choices Menu?
Allow you to select which OS to load on computers with more than one.
What is Event View?
A utility that allows users to monitor system events, including network bandwidth usage and CPU utilization.
What are the four main bars within the center pane of the Event View menu?
Overview, Summary of Administrative Events, Recently Viewed Nodes, and Log Summary.
What is the Summary of Administrative Events Bar in the Event View menu?
It breaks down the events into different levels: Critical, Error, Warning, Information, Audit Success, and Audit Failure.
What are views?
Dialog boxes within the Event View Menu that describe a warning event.
* If a device has failed and creates a problem with Windows startup, you would ______________________.
use Device Manager.
What should you do if an auto-loading program starts causing issues?
Use System Configuration or Task Manager to stop it from auto-loading.
When starting, Windows will alert you if a _____________ service fails to load. Window alert you of other service failure when _______________.
critical, you attempt to use a program that needs the service
What are the service start-up types in the Services menu?
Automatic, Manual, and Disabled.
What tool should you use if you get a "Error loading XXXXDLL" message, meaning a critical Windows file has become corrupted?
System File Checker
* Newly installed DLL files must be entered into the registry via a process called ________________. If a DLL needs to be manually registered, use _____________________.
What is the Problem Reports Control Panel?
Shows all Windows Error Reporting issues and allows you to click on the solution to fix them.
What is the downside to Problem Reports?
Once a problem is fixed, it must be deleted from the list manually. Also, there are issues that don't have anything to do with Windows Error Reporting.
What is the Action Center?
A one-page aggregation of event messages, warnings, and maintenance messages.
What benefit does Action Center have over Event Viewer?
Action Center separates issues into two sections, Security and Maintenance, instead of one long list.
What tools have direct links within the Action Center?
- UAC settings
- Performance Information and Tools
- Backup and Restore
- Windows Update
- Troubleshooting Wizard
- System Restore
What is the Performance Information and Tools applet?
Provides a relative feel for how your computer stacks up against other systems using the Windows Experience Index.
What are the five components that make up the Windows Experience Index?
Processor, Memory (RAM), Graphics, Gaming graphics, and Primary hard disk
Programs that fail to install are usually the result of _________________________.
the lack of another program needed for it to operate within Windows.
* pg 636 sidebars
If you get an error while uninstalling a program, what is most likely the issue?
You tried to uninstall it without administrator privileges.
What is Windows Compatibility mode?
Feature that allows software written for previous versions of Windows to operate in newer operating systems.
What are the options on the Compatibility tab under display settings?
- Reduced color mode: Allows older programs to run more than 256 colors
- Run in 640 x 480: Enable older programs to work in the current screen resolution
- Disable desktop composition (Windows Vista/7): Disables all display features such as Aero.
- Disable display scaling on high DPI settings: Turns off resizing of a program's window if using any high DPI fonts.
- Run this program as an administrator: runs program as an administrator
- Enable this program to work with OneDrive files (Windows 8/8.1/10): Provides networking support for older applications that might not understand cloud
- Change settings for all users: Applies compatibility changes to every user account on the machine.
What is Windows XP Mode?
A Window XP virtual machine that enables users to run programs that don't work on Windows 7.
What is the Volume Shadow Copy Service (VSS)?
It enables the OS to make backups of any file, even one currently in use.
What is the System Protection feature?
Enables you to restore any previous version of a file or folder.
THIS SET IS OFTEN IN FOLDERS WITH...
Ch. 16: Working with the Command-Line Interface
Ch. 18: Virtualization
Ch. 4: Microprocessors ***
Ch. 5: RAM ***
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