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39 terms

Bone Tissue pt. 2

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flat
____ bones form from intramembranous ossificaton
intramembranous
Which type of bone matures early in life, intramembranous bones or endochondral?
intramembranous
This type of ossification involves the formation of osteoblasts from the condensation of mesenchyme near blood vessels
endochondral
in this type of ossificaiton, osteoblasts (and later blood vessels) invade cartilage
epiphyseal plate
The ____ _____ is what allows bones to grow
true
T/F: bone elongation is really a result of cartilage growth.
appositional growth
Bones increasing in width throughout life is termed
bone matrix
bone can never grow from within the ____ ____
Wolff's Law
In this law of bone, the architecture of bone is determined by mechanical stresses placed on it and bones adapt to withstand those stresses
osteoblasts, osteoclasts
What two cells correspond to Wolff's law of bone remodeling?
mineralization
this is the process whereby calcium phosphate is removed from the blood and deposited into the bone by osteoblasts
mineral resorption
this is the process of dissolving bone and releasing minerals into the blood
osteoclasts
mineral resorption is performed by ___
hypocalcemia
a deficiency of calcium in the blood
hypocalcemia
this causes excess excitability of muscle, tremors, spasms, tetany (the inability to relax)
hypercalcemia
this causes nerves and muscles to be less excitable than normal. sluggish reflexes, depression.
osteocytes
If the body needs more calcium, it takes it from the ____
calcitriol, calcitonin, PTH
Calcium homeostasis is regulated by what three hormones?
parathyroid
if your Ca2+ levels drop, this gland is stimulated, causing mineral resorption to restore balance
calcitonin
This thyroid hormone___ antagonizes PTH.
hypocalcemic
If you removed your PT gland, you would be chronically...
mineralization
calcitonin basically causes
osteoporosis
the most common bone disease, possibly due to overactive osteoclasts
spongy
Osteoporosis affects (spongy/compact) bone the most because it is the most metabolically active
estrogen
osteoporosis is a concern for post-menopausal women because bone health is closely tied to ____.
epiphyseal line
the remnant of the epiphyseal plate in adults is called the
bones
99% of the body's calcium is found in the ____
interstitial
the type of bone growth that occurs within cartilage is called _____ growth
PTH
a low blood calcium level stimulates the release of
PTH
____ is the hormone that reduces kidney secretion of Ca2+
diaphysis
the site of primary ossification during endochondral ossification is the ____
intramembranous
_____ ossification forms the flat bones of the skull
hyaline cartilage
______ _____ is the structural material replaced with bone during endochondral ossification
calcitriol
this hormone is an activated form of Vitamin D, which increases the availability of calcium in the blood
hyaline
articular cartilage is what kind?
mesenchyme
this is a gelatinous embryonic connective tissue derived from the mesoderm, which differentiates into all permanent connective tissues and most muscle
metaphysis
the _____ is a transitional area between the shaft and the cartilaginous head of a developing long bone
reserve cartilage
what zone of the metaphysis is farthest from the marrow space?
kyphosis
widow's hump is called