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Biology 1: Concept 2 - Geochemical Cycles
Terms in this set (41)
What is the chemical formula for water?
H2O and this is necessary for the life processes of all living things
Where is water found?
-Earth's surface (including oceans, lakes, rivers, etc.)
-3% is freshwater, 2% is frozen glaciers
-Under earth's surface (groundwater and aquifers)
-In the atmosphere
-In living organisms
What is the most important part of the water cycle and what does it do?
The cycle is driven by the sun, which causes evaporation from resources and organisms
What are the stages of the water cycle?
water falls to Earth as a liquid (usually as rain, sleet, or snow)
liquid water that isn't infiltrated runs along the surface and collects in puddles, lakes, oceans, or other bodies of water
some water seeps from the surface of the earth to underground aquifers
sun heats liquid water to vapor and it rises to the atmosphere
water rises back into the atmosphere as water vapor from plants
water condenses to form clouds before precipitating again
Why do all organisms need water?
How does water help organism?
All organisms release water when breaking down food for energy (cellular respiration) C6H12O6+6O2—>6CO2+6H2O+ATP
How does water help plants?
Plants take in water to make sugar (photosynthesis) 6CO2+6H2O—>C6H12O6+6O2
What are negative impacts that humans cause?
-Deforestation : decrease in transpiration
-Paring/Building/Development : increase in runoff and decrease in infiltration
Where is carbon found?
-Macromolecules, which are large molecules necessary for life
-Proteins (muscle, skin, etc.)
-Carbohydrates (food, sugar)
-Nucleic Acids (DNA and RNA)
-Our atmosphere (as CO2)
-Minerals and rocks
-Fossil fuels (coal, oil, natural gas)
-Organic living materials in soil or aquatic sediments
How is carbon different from water?
Carbon changes forms as it cycles, unlike water which is always H2O. Carbon is CO2 in the atmosphere but C6H12O2 as glucose in plants
What the main stages of the carbon cycle?
plants capture CO2 from the atmosphere and use it to make sugar
CO2 released into atmosphere as waste from metabolism
one organisms eats another for carbon
CO2 released into atmosphere from burning
decomposers break down carbon from dead organisms, allowing it to be recycled in the soil
converts carbon from once living organisms into a fuel source through intense heat and compression including natural gas, oil, and fuel (fossil fuel)
What role do decomposers play in the carbon cycle?
Decomposers (like bacteria and fungi) break down dead materials and return the nutrients (like carbon) to the soil
What are the plants role in the carbon cycle?
Photosynthesis organisms (like plants and algae) remove CO2 from the atmosphere and convert it into sugar
What is the role of animals, plants, and fungi in the carbon cycle?
Animals, plants, and fungi do cellular respiration in order to break down carbon-rich foods for energy
What is the negative human impact in the carbon cycle?
Combustion - when wood or fossil fuel, which contain carbon, are burned —> causing major increases of CO2 in the atmosphere
Where is nitrogen found?
-Two molecules: molecules and nucleic acids
-In the atmosphere in the form of a gas -N2 (element nitrogen)
-Note: the plants and animals do NOT use nitrogen in this form
What are the main stages of the nitrogen cycle?
bacteria (or lightning) in the soil or water convert nitrogen (from the air or water) into forms that plants can use
decomposers like bacteria break dead matter down, returning nitrogen to the soil
bacteria converts nitrogen from waste (urine and feces) into ammonia
-bacteria convert nitrogen in ammonia into nitrates and nitrites to be absorbed by plants in their roots
-This is how nitrogen enters the food chain, and eventually reaches us
bacteria convert nitrogen in ammonia to N2 so it can go back into the atmosphere
How is the nitrogen cycle different from the other geochemical cycles?
The nitrogen cycle is different from other geochemical cycles, in that no step is completed without the help of living organisms
What is the most important part of the nitrogen cycle and what des it do?
Bacteria is most important living organism in converting nitrogen into different forms
What is the role of fungi and other decomposers in the nitrogen cycle?
Fungi and other decomposers breakdown nitrogen rich waste and out it in the soil
What is the negative human impact on the nitrogen cycle?
-Fertilizers - the use of fertilizers adds WAY too much nitrogen to the soil, creating an imbalance. This excess nitrogen get into groundwater which can be dangerous to drink
-Combustion - not as major of an impact on the nitrogen cycle as the carbon cycle, but burning fossil fuel does release excess nitrogen into the atmosphere
represents the movement of matter through the living and nonliving parts of an ecosystem
What are the three cycles that have the things necessary for life?
Why do these nutrients have to be continually recycled?
Since matter can neither be created or destroyed, and earth is a closed system, these essential nutrients must be continually cycled
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