173 terms

Geography Final Exam

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Geography
To write
Includes all living things
Biosphere
Describe the field of physical geography
Spatial Analysis
Example of positive feedback
Climate warming, Arctic sea ice, and albedo
Earth's circumference
24,902
Runs east-west, indicates distance north or south of the Equator
Latitude
Universal Time Coordinated
Greenwich, England
Location of Solar System
½ way out from Milky Way Center
Perihelion(closest to sun)
Jan. 3
As Earth rotates, in Boone we move at a speed of
850 MPH
Amount of Earth illuminated by the sun
½
Peak daily temp.
4pm
Most damaging electromagnetic solar radiation
Gamma rays
Sunspot cycle
11 years
Explain blue skies
diffuse scatter
Transformation of electromagnetic energy and heating of medium
absorption
Water changes phases→ heat to atm.
latent heat
Sun reaches highest altitude
June 21
Everywhere receives 12 hrs of daylight
September 22
Most abundant gas
nitrogen
Weather
troposphere
Temp. Inversion
surface temp. Is lower than overlying air
Air pollution problem
Salt Lake City
Average barometric pressure at sea level
all answers are equal
Temp. decreases with altitude
Normal lapse rate
Los Angeles pollution problem
all answers
Earth's average albedo=
31%
9/11 reduced these clouds
jet contrails
Greatest annual temp. range
large mid-latitude continents
Textbook example: temp. changes→ results
all answers
Coldest place
Verkhoyansk, Siberia
Maritime effect
San Diego
Maritime influence and water properties
all answers
Thermal equator north of Equator
July
Northern Hemisphere & Coriolis Effect= winds deflected to the
right
Southern Hemisphere & Coriolis Effect= winds deflected to the
left
low pressure, rainy, near Equator
ITCZ
blows parallel to isobars
Geostrophic wind
convergence, lifting
Surface cyclone
30 degrees- 55 degrees north and 30 degrees to 55 degrees south, mid latitudes
Westerlies
tropics, 5 degrees- 20 degrees north and south
Trade Winds
Wind blow hardest
steepest pressure gradient
Rural vs. cities
all answers
Eruption of Mt. Pinatubo= albedo
1.5% increase
Ocean currents dominated by a gyre
all answers
amount of moisture in atm.
Specific humidity
When air becomes saturated
lifting condensation level
Clouds of vertical development
cumuliform
Air descending on the lee side of mountain→ warms
dry adiabatic rate
Highest relative humidity
dawn
Parcel continues to rise on its own
when parcel reaches the lifting condensation level
Most common fog in Blowing Rock
upslope
Most common fog in San Fran
advection
cold, dry, stable
cP
warm, humid, unstable
mT
produces Boone rain
mT
Convert ice to water
latent heat of melting
Separates advancing cold air and warmer air
cold front
Steepest environmental lapse rate
4pm
Thunderstorms
cumulonimbus
Orographic Lifting Diagram
-Left side= windward
-Dry adiabatic rate→ Moist adiabatic rate= letter B
-Least precipitation= letter D
Driest Place
Asheville
Conditional Instability
ELR between 6 degrees C/1000 meters and 10 degrees C/ 1000 meters
Cold fronts
all answers
**Diagram
-Letter C= mT
-cP air= letter B
-Heavy precipitation= letter A
Most thunderstorms
Florida
Boone rain
frontal convergence
Non-frontal convergence→ lots of rain
Orlando, Florida
Southeast thunderstorms
convection
straight-line winds
Derechos
measures intensity of tornadoes
Fujita Scale
Tornado Season
late spring-April, May, and June
increasing damage by hurricanes
Sea level rise
Associated with thunderstorms
all answers
Dr. Wladimir Koppen
botanist
Exception to Koppen climate classification system
B climate
Fargo, cold winters, no dry climate, no dry season, Boreal forest
Df
Af precipitation
ITCZ
Deliverance and Andy Griffith
Cfa
mild winters, warm-hot summers, dry summer, chaparral vegetation
Cs
Influences climate
all answers
Df climates have a max of precipitation
summer
dominant subtropical high pressure cells and centered on 25 degrees N and 25 degrees S latitude
BW
least influence in North America
cT
Front over Boone
cP
Action to reduce C02
all answers
Climate change time scale
all answers
Irregularities in Earth's orbit
all answers
Increasing radiative forcing the most due to humans
CO2
Causes cooling in troposphere
sulfate aerosols
Colder water on west coast→ phase of ENSO
La Nina
ENSO warm phases (El Nino)
all answers
Viking settlement
Medieval Warm Period
"Year Without a Summer"
eruption of Tambora
Impacted by recent warming
all answers
crystallization
Igneous rock
outermost, thick, cold, brittle
Lithosphere
Alfred Wegener evidence
all answers
Movement of plates
growth of toenail
Constantly creating fresh plate material
spreading centers
Appalachians and Himalayas
continental-continental
Torn apart
Africa
Continental vs. Oceanic
oceanic gets subducted
Cascades & Andes
oceanic-continental collision
Supercontinent
Pangea
Hawaii
movement of Pacific plate over mantle plume
Average rate of denudation
60 mm/1000 yrs
Higher rates of denudation
high glaciated mountains
sinkholes and caves
Karst topography
Kingston, Tennessee disaster
coal fly-ash holding pond
First step of denudation
weathering
Primary product of chemical weathering
dirt
Resulting form of physical weathering
joint formation
Carbonation→ caverns
limestone
Primary product of physical weathering
angular rock fragments
Essential for chemical weathering
water
Stone Mountain and Yosemite
exfoliation
Debris avalanches in southern Appalachians are from
heavy rain, often from tropical storms
Most common mast wasting
creep
Results in rotational slumps
all answers
Max angle
angle of equilibrium
Mudflow from volcano
lahar
pH of 5.0
acidic
soluble nutrients removed from soil
Leaching
Black soil
humus/ organic material
Best soil
loam
Control of soil development
climate change
Hydrologic cycle-->huge transfer
solar energy
Available water in soil for plant
soil moisture
True annual flow of Colorado River
less than 15
Most important agent of erosion, transportation and deposition
running water; over 90%
Erosion
initial detachment of particles
Transportation
continued movement of particles
Deposition
when particles are dropped; episodic
Capacity
total mass moved per year
Competence
largest particle a stream can move
Bedload
rolled, "jump"--saltation
Suspension
silt,clay
Solution-dissolved load
everything but especially CaCO3-limestone-in solution
Deposition
occurs whenever, wherever current slows
Stream Channel Patterns
Angular-flowing along geologic weaknesses
Ex: faults, joints, etc
Braided
too much load for the power the stream has; overloaded, glaciers
Meandering Streams
common to all free flowing fluids
Urban watershed flood more
3x-5x per year
Floodplain
land area that is inundated
Importance of Coastal Zones
fisheries and recreational fishing, oil & gas, phosphate ore, recreation, human populations:37%, aesthetics, rising sea level, hurricanes
Holocene Changes in Sea Level
½ to 1 inch per century
IPCC forecasts
0.6 to 2.4 m (1' to 8') by 2200 due to thermal expansion alone
Fetch
distance of open water
Max wave height
132'
Mechanics of Wave Erosion
-Direct impact force:up to 12,700 lb/in^2
-Entrained cobbles: Tillamook Lighthouse
-Abrasion
-Chemical solution
Beach
an accumulation on materials E-T-D'd by waves and currents
Ex: sand, gravel, cobble, boulder
Barrier islands
protect against storm waves, rising sea level, formed at end of the Pleistocene(15,000 yrs ago), low lying, narrow, vulnerable, most ephemeral landforms on Earth
Seasonal adjustment of Barrier Islands:Summer
-Mild weather
-Waves are small
-Net on shore migration of sand
-Beach profile is steep, narrow
Seasonal adjustment of Barrier Islands:Winter
-Large storms
-Large waves
-Strong currents
-Net offshore
-Movement of sand
-Profile: wide, flat beach
Solution to Beach Erosion
-Seawalls
-Groins
-Jetties
-Beach Nourishment- pumping sand onto the beach
Glacier
a mass of ice thick enough to flow under its own weight
Myths Regarding Arid Lands:
hot, barren, covered with sand dunes, of little value
Reality Regarding Arid Lands:
any, record highs, large diurnal range, discontinuous, 25% sand, 75% bedrock, rock fragment, desert pavement
Importance of Water in Arid Lands
-Erratic Precipitation
-Frontal Convergence
-Convection
Exotic Streams
originates in a distant humid region, flows through desert; ex: colorado, nile, indus, tigris, euphrates
Missoula Floods
20x flow of all rivers on Earth today, max. velocity>60 mph, created the Scablands in one week
Loess Deposits
best soil on Earth(?); wind E-T-D silt
MX Missile Project
200 missiles, 10 warheads each, 23 silos per missile
I=PAT
I=impact, P=population, A=affluence,T= technology(medicine, water quality, agriculture
Limited food supplies, drought, pestilence, war-->kept population down
Major human impact
human population, climate change, ozone depletion, pandemic disease, species impacts, extinctions, appropriation of Net Primary Production(NPP)
Human Appropriation of NPP
-According to Haberl (2007), humans have appropriated 24% of global NPP
-Specific sources: cropping (53%); land use change(40%); and fires(7%)
Biogeochemical Cycle
-Nitrogen
-Carbon
-Phosphorus
Forms of Soil Depletion
-Soil Erosion
-Salinization
-Desertification
-Waterlogging
-Compaction
-Nutrient depletion
-Poisoning via pesticides, radiation, heavy metals
Impacts of Accelerated Erosion
-Loss of topsoil
-Reduced crop yields (6"...42% loss)
-Aesthetic impacts
-Sediment carries pollutants to water bodies
-Stream impacts (EPA says $6 billion per year)
-Riparian zone impacts
-Sedimentation streams
-Impacts on aquatic communities
-Streambed aggradation
-Increased flooding
Dust Bowl
-1930s
-Antecedent conditions
-Rain follows the plow idea
Water Use
-70 gallons per day for domestic use
-1-3 liters/ day for survival
Indirect Use of Water
-Purchased goods
-1lb beef: 12,000 gallons
-1lb of wheat: 90 gallons
-1lb rice: 225