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Exam 2 Questions
Terms in this set (50)
Bacterial cells must regulate chromosomes replication such that the chromosome is completely replicated prior to cells division but also so that the cell does not make too many copies of the chromosome. DnaA facilitates replication when bound to DNA in the origin of replication in E. coli. What is NOT a form of regulation that inhibits initiation of another round of replication once the replication forks have formed?
binding of ATP to DnaA, forming DnaA-ATP
The typical time required for chromosome replication is E. coli is BLANK minutes.
Plasmids are replicated in E. coli using the Par system.
Which of the following proteins is most active in divisome (cell division site) complexes?
Proteins in the Min system interact to BLANK.
guide FtsZ to the mid point
Antibiotics are produced by bacteria and fungi as a defense mechanism against other organisms. Which of the antibiotic targets listed would be the LEAST useful in a clinical setting due to possible toxicity (by its target being similar to a human cell target)?
the major groove of DNA
Bacteria can survive the presence of antibiotics through a variety of mechanisms. Which of the following is not a form of antibiotic resistance?
Organic micronutrients are commonly called BLANK.
The prokaryotic transport system that involves a substrate-binding protein, a membrane-integrated transporter, and an ATP-hydrolyzing protein and does not modify the molecule being transported is:
Which of the following would NOT be requires to grow an autotroph?
If an oxidation reaction occurs:
a simultaneous reduction reaction must occur
Organisms grown with CO2 as their sole carbon source must generate ATP via BLANK.
ATPase/proton motive force
Photosynthesis uses sunlight to excite electrons which the BLANK NAD+ to NADH.
The Calvin cycle provides autotrophs the ability to convert inorganic carbon into biomass.
RubisCO adds CO2 into an organic carbon compound in the cell and is he entry point for atmospheric CO2 into plant biomass.
If an organism could respire aerobically or anaerobically, why would it prefer to respire aerobically?
Aerobic respiration generated more energy that anaerobic
What metabolism would be favored when there is a lack of terminal electron acceptors?
If an organism used glycolysis but was unable to subsequently use fermentation or an electron transport chain (respiration), what problem would develop?
The available NAD+ would be converted to NADH and glycolysis would eventually stop due to the lack of NAD+
All microbial autotrophs:
fix CO2 into carbohydrates
Vibrio bacteria sometimes live inside Bobtail squid where bioluminescence is stimulated by quorum sensing which occurs when:
Vibrio population density is high
Chemoheterotrophic bacteria are primary producers in freshwater environments
BLANK are the main primary producers in marine environments.
Decomposition/oxidation of organic carbon ultimately results in the formation of BLANK.
The metabolic process of denitrification
Nitrogen fixation results in
addition of biologically available N to an ecosystem
Runoff of N, P, and K rich fertilizers into a nearby body of water stimulates the growth of heterotrophic microorganisms that consume O2 from the water and can create 'dead zones' where larger animals cannot grow. This process is known as:
When both organisms benefit in an interaction is known as BLANK.
When one organism benefits in an interaction and the other is unaffected this is known as BLANK.
When one organism benefits in an interaction at the expense of the other is known as BLANK.
Rhizobium bacteria live in a symbiotic relationship with plants in the root nodule where they BLANK.
fix N2 gas
Mycorrhizae are symbiotic interactions between plants and BLANK that serve to increase the surface area of plant roots, enabling them to take up more nutrients.
Crown Gall disease is a tumor formation on plants infected with the bacterium Agrobacterium tumifaciens. In this disease Agrobacterium causes tumors to form by:
injecting a plasmid into plant cells, stimulation tumor growth
Ruminant animals ferment BLANK in the rumen which is carried out by BLANK.
In a given environment all the microorganisms present AND their genomic contents is the BLANK.
In a given environment ONLY all of the microorganisms present is the BLANK.
By number alone, the human body contains more bacterial cells than human cells.
The ability to sequence all bacterial DNA from an environment revealed a much greater diversity (number of species present) than we were able to previously estimate beforehand. This is because most bacteria in nature cannot be cultured in a laboratory.
Streptococcus mutans rapidly ferments glucose into lactic acid where it grows on the surface of the human tooth. If we let this occur for too long it results in the disease BLANK.
BLANK resides in the human vaginal tract where it acidifies the environment by fermentation which prevents colonization of the vagina by pathogenic bacteria.
In class Dr. Ramsey mentioned that BLANK live in the nasal cavity where they prevent the colonization of pathogenic Streptococcus species.
Disruption of homeostasis, aka the loss of diversity of the host microbiota is known as BLANK.
Loss of diversity of the GI tract microbiota after intense antibiotic therapy can allow this bacterium for grow to high levels and cause gastrointestinal disease.
Bacteria in your lower intestine provide BLANK which your body cannot make on its own.
Beta oxidation is the breakdown of long carbon chain fats into 2-carbon Acetyl-CoA units. Pyruvate from glycolysis is also broken down into Acetyl-CoA and both of these pathways use this 'preparative step' to enter into this pathway:
Krebs/ TCA cycle
If an organism oxidizes glucose in glycolysis and takes electrons from this oxidation and uses it to reduce a downstream product from that same glucose then this is fermentation.
NADH is oxidized at the beginning of the electron transport chain which is embedded in the membrane of the cell. Since NADH and other molecules in the transport chain can carry hydrides (a proton plus 2 electrons) and some can only carry electrons, the electron transport chain takes advantage of these properties to pump BLANK outside the cell.
The ATPase enzyme converts ADP+P into ATP by taking advantage of BLANK outside the cell.
a high proton concentration
The end products of glycolysis are: 2 pyruvate, 8 ATP, and 2 NAD+
The Krebs/ TCA cycle generates a large amount of BLANK.
Sulfate reduction is a form of anaerobic respiration that leaves the end product of BLANK.
H2S (hydrogen sulfide)
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