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179 terms

Chapter 4 - Body Structure

STUDY
PLAY
chromatin
structural component of the nucleus, composed of nucleic acids and proteins
chromosome
threadlike structures within the nucleus composed of a deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) molecule that carries hereditary information encoded in genes
cytoplasm
jellylike substance found within the cell membrane composed of proteins, salts, water, dissolved gases, and nutrients
deoxyribonucleic acid
molecule that holds genetic information capable of replication and producing and exact copy whenever the cell divides
diaphragm
muscular wall that divides the thoracic cavity from the abdominopelvic cavity
metabolism
sum of all physical and chemical changes that take place in a cell or an organism
organelle
cellular structure that provides a specialized function, such as the nucleus (reproduction), ribosomes (protein synthesis), Golgi apparatus (removal of material from the cell), and lysosomes (digestion)
pathology
study of the nature of diseases, their causes, development, and consequences
peristalsis
rhythmic contraction and relaxation of the walls of a tubular organ to propel its contents onward
midsagittal (median) plane
coronal (frontal) plane
transverse (horizontal) plane
dorsal
posterior (back of the body)
ventral
anterior (front of the body)
right upper quadrant
region A
left upper quadrant
region B
right lower quadrant
region C
left lower quadrant
region D
epigastric region
region E
umbilical region
region F
right hypochondriac region
upper right region beneath the ribs (diagram on right)
left hypochondriac region
upper left region beneath the ribs (diagram on right)
right lumbar region
right middle lateral region (diagram on right)
left lumbar region
left middle lateral region (diagram on right)
hypogastric region
lower middle region beneath the navel (diagram on right)
right inguinal (iliac) region
right lower lateral region (diagram on right)
left inguinal (iliac) region
left lower lateral region (diagram on right)
abduction
movement away from the midsagittal (median) plane of the body or one of its parts
adduction
movement toward the midsagittal (median) plane of the body
medial
pertaining to the midline of the body or structure
lateral
pertaining to a side
superior (cephalad)
toward the head or upper portion of a structure
inferior (caudal)
away from the head, or toward the tail or lower part of a structure
proximal
nearer to the center (trunk of the body) or to the point of attachment to the body
distal
further from the center (trunk of the body) or from the point of attachment to the body
parietal
pertaining to the outer wall of the body cavity
visceral
pertaining to the viscera, or internal organs, especially the abdominal organs
prone
lying on the abdomen, face down
supine
lying on horizontally on the back, face up
inversion
turning inward or inside out
eversion
turning outward
palmar
pertaining to the palm of the hand
plantar
pertaining to the sole of the foot
superficial
toward the surface of the body (external)
deep
away from the surface of the body (internal)
cyt/o
cell
hist/o
tissue
kary/o
nucleus
nucle/o
nucleus
anter/o
anterior, front
caud/o
tail
crani/o
cranium (skull)
dist/o
far, farthest
dors/o
back (of body)
infer/o
lower, below
later/o
side, to one side
medi/o
middle
poster/o
back (of body, behind, posterior
proxim/o
near, nearest
ventr/o
belly, belly side
abdomin/o
abdomen
cervic/o
neck; cervix of uteri
gastr/o
stomach
ili/o
ilium
inguin/o
groin
lumb/o
loins (lower back)
pelv/i
pelvis
pelv/o
pelvis
spin/o
spine
thorac/o
chest
umbilic/o
umbilicus, navel
albin/o
white
leuk/o
white
chlor/o
green
chrom/o
color
cirrh/o
yellow
jaund/o
yellow
xanth/o
yellow
cyan/o
blue
erythr/o
red
melan/o
black
poli/o
gray; gray matter (of brain or spinal cord)
acr/o
extremity
eti/o
cause
idi/o
unknown, peculiar
morph/o
form, shape, structure
path/o
disease
radi/o
radiation, x-ray; radius
somat/o
body
son/o
sound
viscer/o
internal organs
xer/o
dry
-genesis
forming, producing, origin (suffix)
-gnosis
knowing (suffix)
-gram
record, writing (suffix)
-graph
instrument for recording (suffix)
-graphy
process of recording (suffix)
-logist
specialist in the study of (suffix)
-logy
study of (suffix)
-meter
instrument for measuring (suffix)
-metry
act of measuring (suffix)
-paty
disease (suffix)
ab-
from, away from (prefix)
ad-
toward (prefix)
hetero-
different (prefix)
homeo-
same, alike (prefix)
infra-
below, under (prefix)
peri-
around (prefix)
super-
upper, above (prefix)
trans-
across, through (prefix)
ultra-
excess, beyond (prefix)
adhesion
abnormal fibrous band that holds or binds together tissues that are normally separated
analyte
substance analyzed or tested, generally by means of laboratory methods
contrast medium
substance injected into the body, introduced via catheter, or swallowed to facilitate radiographic images of internal structures that otherwise are difficult to visualize on x-ray films
dehiscence
bursting open of a wound, especially a surgical abdominal wound
febrile
feverish, pertaining to a fever
homeostasis
relative constancy or balance in the internal environment of the body, maintained by processes of feedback and adjustment in response to external or internal changes
inflammation
body defense against injury, infection, or allergy that is marked by redness, swelling, heat, pain, and sometimes loss of function
morbid
diseased; pertaining to disease
nuclear medicine
branch of medicine concerned with the use of radioactive substances for diagnosis, treatment, and research
radiology
medical specialty concerned with the use of electromagnetic radiation, ultrasound, and imaging techniques for diagnosis and treatment of disease and injury
interventional radiology
radiological practice that employs fluoroscopy, CT, and ultrasound in nonsurgical treatment of various disorders
therapeutic radiology
use of ionizing radiation in the treatment of cancer; also called radiation oncology
radionuclides
substances that emit radiation spontaneously; also called tracers
radiopharmaceutical
radionuclide attached to a protein, sugar, or other substance used to visualize an organ or area of the body that will be scanned
scan
term used to describe a computerized image by modality (such as CT, MRI, and nuclear imaging) or by structure (such as thyroid and bone)
sepsis
pathological state, usually febrile, resulting form the presence of microorganisms or their products in the bloodstream
suppurative
producing or associated with generation of pus
endoscopy
visual examination of a body cavity or canal using a specialized lighted instrument called and endoscope
laparoscopy
visual examination of the organs of the pelvis and abdomen through very small incisions in the abdominal wall
thoracoscopy
examination of the lungs, pleura, and pleural space with a scope inserted through a small incision between the ribs
complete blood count
common blood test that enumerates red blood cells, white blood cells, and platelets; measures hemoglobin; estimates red cell volume; and sorts white blood cells into five subtypes with their percentages
urinalysis
common urine screening test that evaluates the physical, chemical, and microscopic properties of urine
computed tomography
imaging technique achieved by rotating an x-ray emitter around the area to be scanned and measuring the intensity of transmitted rays from different angles; formerly called computerized axial tomography
doppler
ultrasound technique used to detect and measure blood-flow velocity and direction through the cardiac chambers, valves, and peripheral vessels by reflecting sound waves off moving blood cells
fluoroscopy
radiographic technique in which x-rays are directed through the body to a fluorescent screen that displays continuous motion images of internal structures
magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)
noninvasive imaging technique that uses radiowaves and a strong magnetic field rather than an x-ray beam to produce multiplanar cross-sectional images
nuclear scan
diagnostic technique that uses a tracer that is introduced into the body (inhaled, ingested, or injected) and a specialized camera to produce images of organs and structures
positron emission tomography
scanning technique using computed tomography to record the positrons (positive charged particles) emitted from a radiopharmaceutical, that produces a cross-sectional image of metabolic activity in body tissues to determine the presence of disease
radiography
imaging technique that uses x-rays passed through the body or area and captured on a film; also called x-ray
single photon emission computed tomography
radiological technique that integrates computed tomography (CT) and a tracer injected into the bloodstream to visualize blood flow to tissues and organs
tomography
radiographic technique that produces an image representing a detailed cross-section of an area, tissue, or organ at a predetermined depth
ultrasonography
imaging procedure using high-frequency sound waves (ultrasound) that display the reflected "echoes" on a monitor; also called ultrasound, sonography, echo, and echography
biopsy
representative tissue sample removed from a body site for microscopic examination, usually to establish a diagnosis
frozen section biopsy
ultra-thin slice of tissue cut from a frozen specimen for immediate pathological examination
needle biopsy
removed of a small tissue sample for examination using a hollow needle, usually attached to a syringe
punch biopsy
removal of a small core of tissue using a hollow instrument (punch)
shave biopsy
removal of tissue using a surgical blade to shave elevated lesions
ablation
removal of a part, pathway, or function by surgery, chemical destruction, electrocautery, freezing, or radio frequency (RF)
anastomosis
surgical joining for two ducts, vessels, or bowel segments to allow flow from one to another
cauterize
destroy tissue by electricity, freezing heat, or corrosive chemicals
curettage
scraping of a body cavity with a spoon-shaped instrument called a curette (curet)
incision and drainage
incision made to allow the free flow or withdrawal of fluids from a wound or cavity
radical dissection
surgical removal of tissue in an extensive area surrounding the surgical site in an attempt to excise all tissue that may be malignant and decrease the chance of reoccurrence
resection
partial excision of a bone, organ, or other structure
cranial
region A
spinal
region B
thoracic
region C
abdominal
region D
pelvic
region E
anteroposterior
AP
computed tomography
CT
digital subtraction angiography
DSA
lateral
lat
left lower quadrant
LLQ
left upper quadrant
LUQ
magnetic resonance imaging
MRI
positron emission tomography
PET
posterior
post
radio frequency; rheumatoid factor
RF
right lower quadrant
RLQ
right upper quadrant
RUQ
sonogram
sono
single photon emission computed tomography
SPECT
urinalysis
UA
upper and lower
U&L
ultrasound ultrasonography
US
frozen section
FS
upper and lower
U/L