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102 terms

Ch 1&8

STUDY
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psychology
the scientific study of behavior and mental processes
objective introspection
the process of examining and measuring one's own thoughts and mental activities
structuralism
early prospective in psychology associated with Wilhelm Wundt and Edward Titchener, in which the focus of study is the structure or basic elements of the mind
functionalism
early perspective in psychology associated with William James, in which the focus of study is how the mind allows people to adapt, live, work, and play
gestalt psychology
early perspective in psychology focusing on perception and sensation, particularly the perception of patterns and whole figures
psychoanalysis
the theory and therapy based on the work of Sigmund Freud
behaviorism
an approach to psychology that emphasizes observable measurable behavior
psychodynamic perspective
modern version of psychoanalysis that is more focused on the development of a sense of self and the discovery of other motivations behind a person's behavior than sexual motivations
cognitive perspectie
modern perspective that focuses on memory, intelligence, perception, problem solving, and learning
cognitive neuroscience
study of the physical changes in the brain and nervous system during thinking
sociocultural perspective
perspective that focuses on the relationship between social behavior and culture
biopsychological perspective
perspective that attributes human and animal behavior to biological vents occurring in the body, such as genetic influences, hormones, and the activity of the nervous system
evolutionary perspective
perspective that focuses on the biological bases of universal mental characteristics that all humans share
psychiatrist
a medical doctor who has specialized in the diagnosis and treatment of psychological disorders
psychoanalyst
either a psychiatrist or a psychologist who has special training in the theories of Sigmund Freud and his method of psychoanalysis
psychiatric social worker
a social worker with some training in therapy methods who focuses on the environmental conditions that can have an impact on mental disorders, such as poverty, overcrowding, stress, and drug abuse
psychologist
a professional with an academic degree and specialized training in one or more areas of psychology
scientific method
system of gathering data so that bias and error in measurement are reduced
hypothesis
tentative explanation of a phenomenon based on observations
replicate
in research, repeating a study or experiment to see if the same results will be obtained in an effort to demonstrate reliability of results
observer effect
tendency of people or animals to behave differently from normal when they know they are being observed
case study
study of one individual in great detail
participant observation
a naturalistic observation in which the observer becomes a participant in the group being observed
observer bias
tendency of observers to see what they expect to see
representative sample
randomly selected sample of subjects from a larger population of subjects
population
the entire group of people or animals in which the researcher is interested
correlation
a measure of the relationship between two variables
correlation coefficient
a number derived from the formula for measuring a correlation and indicating the strength and direction of a correlation
experiment
a deliberate manipulation of a variable to see if corresponding changes in behavior result, allowing the determination of cause and effect relationships
operational definition
definition of a variable of interest that allows it to be directly measured
critical thinking
making reasoned judgements about claims
independent variable
variable in an experiment that is manipulated by the experimenter
dependent variable
variable in an experiment that represents the measurable response or behavior of the subjects in the experiment
experimental group
subjects in an experiment who are subjected to the independent variable
control group
subjects in an experiment who are not subjected to the independent variable and who may receive a placebo treatment
random assignment
process of assigning subjects to the experimental or control groups randomly, so that each subject has an equal chance of being in either group
placebo effect
the phenomenon in which the expectations of the participants in a study can influence their behavior
experimentor effect
tendency of the experimenter's expectations for a study to unintentionally influence the results of the study
single-blind study
study in which the subjects do not know if they are in the experimental or the conotrol group
double-blind study
study in which neither the experimenter nor the subjects know if the subjects are in the experimental or control group
pseudopsychologies
systems of explaining human behavior that are not based on or consistent with scientific evidence
human development
the scientific study of the changes that occur in people as they age from conception until death
longitudinal design
research design in which one participant or group of participants is studied over a long period of time
cross-sectional design
research desing in which several different age groups of participants are studied at one particular point in time
cross-sequential design
research design in which participants are first studied by means of a cross-sectional design but are also followed and assessed for a period of no more than six years
nature
the influence of our inherited characteristics on our personallity, physical growth, intelluctual growth, and social interactions
nurture
the influence of the environment on personality, physical growth, intellcutal growth, and social interactions
genetics
the science of inherited traits
gene
section of DNA having the same arrangement of chemical elements
DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid)
special molecule that contains the genetic material of the organism
chromosome
tightly wound strand of genetic material or DNA
dominant
referring to a gene that actively controls the expression of a trait
recessive
referring to a gene that only influences the expression of a trait when paired with an identical gene
conception
the moment at which a female becomes pregnant
ovum
the female sex cell, or egg
fertilization
the union of the ovum and sperm
zygote
cell resulting from the uniting of the ovum and sperm
momozygotic twins
identical twins formed when one zygote splits into two seperate masses of cells, each of which develops into a seperate embryo
embryo
name for the developing organism from two weeks to eight weeks after fertilization
dizygotic twins
often called fraternal twins, ocurring when two eggs each get fertilized by two different sperm, resulting in two zygotes in the uterus at the same time
germinal period
first two weeks after fertilization, during which the zygote moves down to the uterus and begins to impact in the lining
embryonic period
the period from two to eight weeks after fertilization, during which the major organs and structures of the organism develop
critical periods
times during which certain environmental influences can have an impact on the development of the infant
teratogen
any factor that can cause a birth defect
fetal period
the time from about eight weeks after conception until the birth of the child
fetus
name for the developing organism from eight weeks after fertilization to the birth of the baby
cognitive development
the development of thinking, problem solving, and memory
scheme
in this case, a mental concept formed through experiences with objects and event
sensorimotor stage
Piaget's first stage of cognitive development in which the infant uses its senses and motor abilitis to interact with ofjects in the environment
ovject permanence
the knowledge that an ofject exists even when it is not in sight
peroperational stage
Piaget's second stage of cognitive development in which the preschool child learns to use language as a means of exploring the world
egocentrism
the inability to see the world through anyone else's eyes
centration
in Piaget's throry, the tendency of a young child to focus only on one feature of an object while ignoring other relevant features
irreversibility
Piaget's theory, the inablilty of the young child to mentally reverse an action
conservation
in Piaget's theory, the ability to understand that simply changing the appearance of an object does not change the object's nature
concrete operations stage
third stage of congitive development in which the school age child becomes capable of logical thought processes but is not yet capable of abstract thinking
formal operations stage
Piaget's last stage of cognitive development, in which the adolescent becomes capable of abstract thinking
scaffolding
process in which a more skilled learner gives help to a less skilled learner, reducing the amount of help as the less skilled learner becomes more capable
zone of proximal development (ZPD)
Vygotsky's concept of the difference between what a child can do alone and what that child can do with the help of a teacher
temperament
the behavioral characteristics that are fairly well established at birth, such as easy, difficult, and slow to warm up
attachment
the emotional bond between and infant and the primary caregiver
gender
the behavior associated with being male or female
gender identity
perception of one's gender and the behavior that is associated with that gender
adolescence
the period of life from about age 13 to the early twenties, during which a young person is no longer physically a child but is not yet an independent, self-supporting adult
puberty
the physical chages that occur in the body as sexual development reaches its peak
personal fable
type of thought common to adolescents in which young people believe themselves to be unique and protected from harm
imaginary audience
type of thought common to adolescents in which young people belive that other people are just as concerned about the adolescents thoughts and characteristics as they themselves are
preconventionial morality
first level of Kohlberg's stages of moral development in which the child's behavior is governed by the consequences of the behavior
conventional morality
second level of Kohlberg's stages of moral development in which the child's behavior is governed by conforming to the society's norms of behavior
post conventional morality
third level of Kohlberg's stages of maoral development in which the person's behavior is governed by more principles that have been decided on by the individual and that may be in disagreement with accepted social norms
identity versus role confusion
fifth stage of personality development in which the adolescent must find a consistent scene of self
menopause
the cessation of ovulation and menstrual cycles and the end of a woman's reproductive capability
andropause
gradual changes in the sexual hormones and reproductive system of middle aged males
intimacy
an emotional and psychological closeness that is based on the ability to trust, share, and care, while still maintaining a sense of self
generativity
providing guidance to one's children or the next generation, or contributing to the well-being of the next generation through career or volunteer work
authoritarian parenting
style of parenting in which parent is rigid and overly strice, showing little warmth to the child
permissive parenting
style of parenting in which parent makes few, if any, demands on a child's behavior
permissive neglectful
permissive parenting in which parents are uninvolved with child or child's behavior
permissive indulgent
permissive parenting in which parents are so involved that children are allowed to behave without set limits
authoritaritative parenting
style of parenting in which parents combine warmth and affection with firm limits on a child's behavior
ego integrity
sense of wholeness that comes from having lived a full life and the ability to let go of regrets, the final completion of the ego
activity theory
theory of adjustment to aging that assumes older people are happier if they remain active in some way, such as volunteering or developing a hobby