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iGCSE Chemistry: Fundamentals - test myself

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Describe the arrangement and movement of the particles in a liquid
Particles are close together but irregular. The particles are free to move.
Describe the arrangement, movement and energy of the particles in a gas
Particles are far apart and there are no forces between them. Energy is high. The particles move quickly and freely.
Describe the arrangement, movement and energy of the particles in a solid
Particles are close together and regularly packed. Energy is low. The particles vibrate around a fixed point.
Describe the arrangement of particles in a gas
Particles are spaced far apart
Describe the arrangement of particles in a liquid
Particles are close together
Describe the arrangement of particles in a solid
Particles are close together
Describe the changes in arrangement, movement and energy of particles when a liquid cools to become a solid
Arrangement becomes more regular. Particles vibrates in a fixed position. Particles lose energy
Describe the changes in arrangement, movement and energy of particles when a liquid turns into a solid
The particles form a regular arrangement, they slow down and lose kinetic energy
Describe the energy of particles in a gas
Particles have a lot of kinetic energy
Describe the energy of particles in a liquid
Particles have a moderate amount of kinetic energy
Describe the energy of particles in a solid
Particles have a little kinetic energy
Describe the movement of particles in a gas
Particles are free to move and moving quickly
Describe the movement of particles in a liquid
Particles are free to move and moving moderately
Describe the movement of particles in a solid
Particles vibrate around fixed positions
Draw 3 particle diagrams to show the arrangement of particles in a solid, liquid and gas. Draw arrows between them and label boiling, condensing and freezing
X=boiling, Y=condensing, Z=freezing
What happens when something condenses?
Condensation is the change of state when a substance cools from gas to liquid
What happens when something evaporates?
Evaporation is the change of state when a substance heats up from liquid to gas
What happens when something freezes?
Freezing is the change of state when a substance cools from liquid to solid
What happens when something melts?
Melting is the change of state when a substance heats up from solid to liquid
Draw 4 diagrams to show the particles in i) element, ii) compound, iii) mixture, iv) diatomic element
How many different elements are there in Be(OH)₂ ?
3
What is meant by the term compound?
A compound is a substance that contains two or more elements chemically joined together in fixed proportions
What is meant by the term element?
An element is a substance made of only one type of atom
What is meant by the term mixture?
Different substances in the same space, but not chemically combined.
What is meant by the term atom?
An atom is the smallest part of an element
Explain why atoms are neutral
The numbers of electrons and protons are equal
State the mass and charge of a neutron
Neutron: mass=1, charge =0
State the mass and charge of a proton
Proton: mass=1, charge=+1
State the mass and charge of an electron
Electron: mass=almost zero, charge=-1
State the particle that is found in the shells orbiting the nucleus
Electrons
State the particles that are found within the nucleus of an atom
Protons and neutrons
What are the three subatomic particles?
protons, neutrons and electrons
What are the two parts of an atom?
The nucleus and the electron shells
Which particle in an atom has a negative charge?
Electron
Which particle in an atom has a posiive charge?
proton
Which particle in an atom has the smallest mass?
Electron
How many neutrons in a typical atom of carbon?
6
How many neutrons in a typical atom of fluorine?
10
How many neutrons in a typical atom of hydrogen?
0
How many neutrons in a typical atom of magnesium?
12
How many neutrons in a typical atom of sulfur?
14
How many protons in a fluorine atom?
9
How many protons in a helium atom?
2
How many protons in a hydrogen atom?
1
How many protons in a phosphorus atom?
15
How many protons in a potassium atom?
19
How many protons in a silicon atom?
14
How many protons in a sodium atom?
11
What is a mass number?
Mass number is the number of protons plus the number of neutrons in an atom
What is an atomic number?
The atomic number is the number of protons in an atom
What is meant by the term relative atomic mass, Aᵣ?
The average mass of an atom of an element, relative to 1/12th of the mass of an atom of carbon-12
What is the atomic number of a beryllium atom?
4
What is the atomic number of a boron atom?
5
What is the atomic number of a calcium atom?
20
What is the atomic number of a carbon atom?
6
What is the atomic number of a chlorine atom?
17
What is the atomic number of an argon atom?
18
What is the atomic number of an oxygen atom?
8
What is the relative atomic mass (Aᵣ) of a helium atom?
4
What is the relative atomic mass (Aᵣ) of a hydrogen atom?
1
What is the relative atomic mass (Aᵣ) of a potassium atom?
39
What is the relative atomic mass (Aᵣ) of a silicon atom?
28
What is the relative atomic mass (Aᵣ) of a sodium atom?
23
How are elements arranged in the periodic table?
in order by atomic number
On the Periodic table what is the meaning of the word Group?
A Group is a vertical column of similar elements
On the Periodic Table what is the meaning of the word Period?
A Period is a horizontal row of elements
If an element conducts electricity, is it typically a metal or a non-metal?
Metal
If an element doesn't conducts electricity, is it a metal or a non-metal?
Non-Metal
Where are metals found on the periodic table?
On the left, reaching across the middle
Where are non-metals found on the periodic table?
At the top right, plus hydrogen
Where are the transition metals on the Periodic Table?
In the middle
Balance the equation for the reaction: ___ HCl(aq) + ___ MnO₂(s) → ___MnCl₂(aq) + ___H₂O(l) + ___ Cl₂(g)
4 HCl(aq) + MnO₂(s) → MnCl₂(aq) + 2H₂O(l) + Cl₂(g)
Balance the following equation: WO₃ + H₂ → W + H₂O
WO₃ + 3H₂ → W + 3H₂O
What do each of the following state symbols represent: (s), (l), (g), (aq)
(s) - solid. (l) - liquid. (g) - gas. (aq) - aqueous (in solution)
Calculate the relative formula mass(Mr) of a molecule of bromine (Br₂)
160
Calculate the relative formula mass(Mr) of aluminium nitrate (Al(NO₃)₃)
213
Calculate the relative formula mass(Mr) of aluminium oxide (Al₂O₃)
102
Calculate the relative formula mass(Mr) of ammonium nitrate (NH₄NO₃)
80
Calculate the relative formula mass(Mr) of calcium carbonate (CaCO₃)
100
Calculate the relative formula mass(Mr) of calcium hydroxide (Ca(OH)₂)
74
Calculate the relative formula mass(Mr) of carbon dioxide (CO₂)
44
Calculate the relative formula mass(Mr) of cobalt chloride crystals (CoCl₂.6H₂O)
238
Calculate the relative formula mass(Mr) of ethanol (C₂H₅OH)
46
Calculate the relative formula mass(Mr) of hydrated copper (II) sulfate (CuSO₄.5H₂O)
249.5
Calculate the relative formula mass(Mr) of propane (C₃H₈)
44
Calculate the relative formula mass(Mr) of zinc phosphide (Zn₃P₂)
257
How can metal carbonates be used to produce carbon dioxide?
Themal Decomposition: when metal carbonates are heated, they break down
Write the word and chemical equation for the thermal decompostion of calcium carbonate, CaCO₃
calcium carbonate → calcium oxide + carbon dioxide CaCO₃ → CaO + CO₂
What is meant by the term endothermic?
A reaction in which heat energy is taken in (surroundings get colder)
What is meant by the term exothermic?
A reaction in which heat energy is given out (surroundings get hotter)