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Biochem Exam 1
Terms in this set (75)
the folded, 3-dimensional structures of biological macromolecules are stabilized primarily by non covalent attractive forces
ribosomal RNA molecules are bonded to amino acids
acetic acid has a PKA of 4.76. Thus, acetate could act as an intracellular buffer
catabolic processes utilize small metabolites and energy sources to synthesize macromolecules
biochemists refer to 1,2,3-propanetriol as glycogen
Cellular reactions are organized into anabolic and catabolic pathways. Which of the following is least likely to be produced by a catabolic process?
What is the pH of a 65 uM solution of NaOH?
The Ka of formic acid is 1.78 x10-4 m. What is the pKa?
Which of the following is the most soluble in water?
If the inside of a red blood cell is pH 7.4, what is the molar concentration of H3O+ in the cell?
4.0 x 10-8 M
Hormones are physiological signal molecules that travel through the body to target tissues. Which of the following biological macromolecules act as hormones?
proteins and steroid lipids
Which of the nucleotide bases below are found in RNA?
Name of Monomeric Unit and Linkage for Lipids?
Name of Monomeric Unit and Linkage for Carbohydrates?
Name of Monomeric Unit and Linkage for Proteins
Name of Monomeric Unit and Linkage for Nucleic Acids
Energy storage for the daily cycle of feast and famine
include molecules that have 3' poly A tails
provides viscocisty/cushioning in synovial fluid of the joints
lipid hormones fall into this category
responsible for the need to store sugars are polysaccharides
responsible for the hydrophoic effect
H-bonds in to clathrates around nonpolar species
primary driver for the cooling effect of evaporation
high delta Hvap (540 cal/g)
causes the high viscosity needed in the vitreous humor
solubilizes large amounts of sugars
Consider proteins. List a physiological function of proteins, then name an example protein that carries out that function.
example: enzyme hexokinase
function immunity response
involved in membrane formation
catalyze reactions as enzymes
composed of monosaccharide units
electrical insulation (nervous system)
responsible for capillary action
high surface tension
helps prevent the body from losing too much heat in cold temps
high specific heat (1.0 cal/g)
responsible for the hydrophobic effect
extensively H-bonds forming clathrates around nonpolar species
the functional group that serves as the linkage in a triacyl glycerol
It is formed by a ______reaction
This linkage is formed between a molecule of ______and a ________molecule
glycerol; fatty acid
The functional group that serves as the linkage in a protein
This linkage is formed between two
This reaction_________and requires ATP
Weak, non covalent, intramolecular attractive forces are overcome by kinetic energy in thermal denaturation
Since hydrolysis of lactose into galactose and glucose occurs with a delta G of -4.0 kcal/mole, it can be concluded that: galactose + glucose -> Lactose + water is NOT the thermodynamically favored reaction.
sucrose is a carbohydrate (name ends in ose) and sucrase is a protein, an enzyme (name ends in -ase)
Which of the following is used by the cell for reducing power?
Thermal cyclers warm DNA samples to cause them to "unzip" into single strands. Which statement below does not accurately describe this process?
the phosphodiester bonds break
Which is the least soluble group of biological macromolecules
The Keq of a reaction A->B, is equal to 102. Which of the following statements is true for that reaction?
The production of B is favored and the delta G is positive
Creatine phosphate is used to store energy in skeletal muscle cells. Consider the structure of creatine phosphate shown below. Which best describes the high energy bond in creatine phosphate?
NAD+ +H:- -> NADH is a reaction that occurs as part of many metabolic pathways. This is what type of reaction?
Which molecule is used by virtually all living organisms to store chemical energy ?
of the following parameters which are state functions?
delta D, delta H, delta G
Cellular reactions are organized into anabolic and catabolic pathways. Which of the following is/are likely to be produced by an anabolic process?
polypeptides, triacylglycerols, glycogen, NAD+
Three major ways that living organisms store energy were discussed in class. Two of them were reducing power and high energy bonds. Name the third
In biochemical enthalpy can be approximated by bond energies Describe briefly, entropy.
Delta D (+) favored
orderly until disorderly
Epinephrine, and prostaglandins are small molecules that act as hormones.
a) a complete definition of a hormone was given in class. What is a hormone?
protein molecule secreted from tissue of origin, travels through blood stream to target tissues.
Epinephrine and prostaglandins are small molecule. Two types of macromolecule hormones were discussed in class. Name one of these types
steroid hormones or peptide hormones
long term-energy storage
contain acetal bonds
maintain genetic information
include fatty acids
hemoglobin is a member of this class of compounds
intermolecular H-bonding causes water to have a lower heat of vaporization than most other liquids
the 3-dimensional structures of biological macromolecules are necessary to their functions
in a redox reaction the molecule that loses electrons is reduced by the reaction
there are only two types of hormones, small molecule hormones (epinephrine) and steroid hormones (estrogen)
A 25 mM solution of a weak monoprotic acid has a pH of 4.8. Which is its Ka?
6.4 X 10-4
Which of the following forms of stored energy involves a relatively high concentration of ions sequestered on one side of an insulating barrier?
In a PCR reaction thermal cyclers warm DNA samples to cause them to "unzip" into single strands. Which statement below does not accurately describe this process?
the hydrogen bonds between the bases break
When large amounts of an amphipathic compound are in water they form membranes. This is largely due to the hydrophobic effect. Which of the following statements about the formation of these membranes is NOT true?
Interactions between water molecules and the hydrophilic portions of the compound are thermodynamically favored.
The hydrolysis of ATP to ADP+ Pi liberates approximately 7 kcal of energy per mole of ATP cleaved. Also, the hydrolysis of ADP to AMP + Pi liberates approx 7 kcal of energy per mole of ADP cleaved. However, the hydrolysis of AMP into adenosine + Pi liberates only approx 2kcal of energy per mole of AMP cleaved. Which best explains why this is so?
hydrolysis of AMP into adenosine + Pi breaks a phosphoanhydride bond
Which of the following processes does not apply to messenger RNA?
The pH of the stomach is approx 2. Which of the following is true of prozac in the stomach.
it is neutral
Consider this list of properties of water. Mark each that does not help the body maintain a constant temperature.
delta Hfus=80 cal/g
2-pentanol is more soluble in water than pentane. Of the properties listed below mark all that partially explain this phenomenon.
-the dielectric constant of water
-the specific heat of water
Cellular respirations are organized into anabolic and catabolic pathways. Which of the following is/are likely to be produced by a catabolic process?
Rank the following secondary valence forces from highest energy to lowest
dipole dipole, dipole-charge, london or can del waal's forces, h-bond
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