40 terms

iGCSE Chemistry: Ions - core

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How many electron shells do the elements in the third period have?
3
How many electrons can the first, second and third shells hold?
First 2, second 8, third 8
How many electrons in a calcium atom?
20
How many electrons in a chlorine atom?
17
How many electrons in the outer shell of group 7 elements?
7
Write the electronic configuration of argon
2,8,8
Write the electronic configuration of potassium
2,8,8,1
On the Periodic table what is the meaning of the word Group? What does that tell us about the electron configuration of the atom?
same number of electrons in the outer shell
On the Periodic Table what is the meaning of the word Period? What does that tell us about the electron configuration of the atom?
same number of electron shells
Why do elements in the same group of the periodic table have similar chemical properties?
Elements in the same group of the periodic table have the same number of electrons in their outer shell
Explain, in terms of the arrangement of electrons in its atoms, why neon is very unreactive
Neon has 8 electrons in the outer shell, so it is full. Therefore it does not easily gain or lose electrons
What are the elements in group 0 called?
Noble gases
What is special about the elements in group 0?
They are very unreactive (because they have full outer electron shells)
What do each of the following state symbols represent: (s), (l), (g), (aq)
(s) - solid. (l) - liquid. (g) - gas. (aq) - aqueous (in solution)
All the atoms in group 1 have 1 electron in their outer shell. What charge ions do they form?
+1
All the atoms in group 3 have 3 electron in their outer shell. What charge ions do they form?
+3
All the atoms in group 5 have 5 electron in their outer shell. What charge ions do they form?
-3
All the atoms in group 7 have 7 electron in their outer shell. What charge ions do they form?
-1
Describe, in terms of electrons, the formation of sodium chloride
An atom of sodium loses one electron. An atom of chlorine gains one electron
State the electron configuration of the fluoride ion
2,8
What is the formula of the aluminium ion?
Al³⁺
What is the formula of the bromide ion?
Br¹⁻
What is the formula of the calcium ion?
Ca²⁺
What is the formula of the potassium ion?
K¹⁺
Zinc phosphide, Zn₃P₂ is an ionic compound. The formula of the zinc ion is Zn²⁺. Deduce the formula of the phosphide ion
P³⁻
State the formula for the copper (II) ion
Cu²⁺
State the formula for the iron (III) ion
Fe³⁺
State the formula of the hydrogen ion
H⁺
State the formula of the silver ion
Ag⁺
State the formula of the zinc ion
Zn²⁺
What is the formula for aluminium chloride?
AlCl₃
What is the formula for aluminium oxide?
Al₂O₃
What is the formula for potassium sulfide?
K₂S
What is the formula for sodium phosphide?
Na₃P
Draw a dot and cross diagram to show the arrangement of electrons in each of the ions in potassium oxide, K₂O
Draw a dot and cross diagram to show the arrangement of electrons in each of the ions in sodium chloride, NaCl
How can atoms get a full outer shell?
Either the transfer (ionic) or sharing (covalent) of electrons
Explain the term ionic bond
An ionic bond is the strong electrostatic attraction between oppositely charged ions
If iron chloride has the formula FeCl₂, what is the formula of the iron ion?
Fe²⁺
If iron chloride has the formula FeCl₃, what is the formula of the iron ion?
Fe³⁺