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iGCSE Chemistry: Metals & Reactivity - test myself

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(Triple only) Draw a diagram to show the bonding in a metal
(Triple only) Describe the bonding in a metal
The strong electrostatic attraction between a regular structure of positive metal ions and a sea of delocalised electrons
(Triple only) Describe the structure of metals
Metals have a giant regular structure of positive metal ions surrounded by a sea of delocalised electrons
(Triple only) Explain why metals are good conductors of electricity
Metals have delocalised electrons which are free to move
(Triple only) Explain why metals are malleable
Metals have layers of ions that can slide over each other
(Triple only) What does the word malleable mean?
able to be hammered or pressed into shape without breaking or cracking
(Triple only) Why do metals have high melting and boiling points?
There is a strong electrostatic attraction between a regular structure of positive metal ions and a sea of delocalised electrons
State the names of the gases present in air and their % by volume
nitrogen = 78%. oxygen = 21%. argon = 0.96%. carbon dioxide = 0.04%
What gas makes up 0.04% of Earth's atomosphere?
carbon dioxide
What gas makes up 78% of Earth's atomosphere?
nitrogen = 78%
What gas makes up around 1% of Earth's atomosphere?
Argon
What percentage of the Earth's atomosphere is oxygen?
21%
Draw a gas syringe
With gas syringes in a closed system, 200cm³ of air is passed back and forward over hot copper until the oxygen is used up. At the end, 160cm³ remains. Calculate the percentage by volume of oxygen in the air.
20%
Describe a way in which the rusting of iron could be used to show the approximate percentage of oxygen in air
An excess of wet iron filings in left in a closed system with a known volume of air. After several days the volume of air has fallen as the oxygen is used up. The percentage of oxygen in air is calculates as the change in volume of gas divided by the initial volume (x100%)
Describe how the oxidation of copper can be used to show the approximate percentage of oxygen in air
With gas syringes in a closed system, air is passed back and forward over hot copper until the oxygen is used up. When the volume of gas stops decreasing, the percentage by volume of oxygen in the air is calculated as the change in the volume of gas divided by the initial volume (x100%)
Describe how the reaction of hydrochloric acid and various metals could be used to determine the relative reactivity of those metals
Add the various metals to different test tubes containing the same volume and concentration of acid. The metals which bubble more are more reactive.
If 2 similar test tubes contain acid, and a different metal sample is added to each, how might you tell which metal is more reactive?
More bubbles will appear faster in the test tube with the more reactive metal
An experiment investigates which of metals X and Z is more reactive. The result is X + ZSO₄ → X + ZSO₄. Which metal is more reactive?
Z. There is no reaction.
An experiment investigates which of metals X and Z is more reactive. The result is X + ZSO₄ → XSO₄ + Z. Which metal is more reactive?
X. This is a displacement reaction.
Order these metals from the most reactive to the least: aluminium, calcium, copper, gold, iron, lithium, magnesium, potassium, silver, sodium, zinc
potassium, sodium, lithium, calcium, magnesium, aluminium, zinc, iron, copper, silver, gold
Which is more reactive: copper or magnesium?
magnesium
Which is more reactive: gold or potassium
potassium
Which is more reactive: iron or sodium?
sodium
Which is more reactive: lithium or calcium?
lithium
Which is more reactive: magnesium or aluminium?
magnesium
Which is more reactive: magnesium or lithium?
lithium
Which is more reactive: silver or iron?
iron
Which is more reactive: sodium or copper?
sodium
Which is more reactive: zinc or aluminium?
aluminium
Which is more reactive: zinc or copper
zinc
Describe an experiment to show that iron rusts quicker in salt water than rain water
1) Set up tubes containing iron in rain water and in salt water. 2) Set up control tube with iron and no water. 3) record mass of nails. 4) leave tubes for same length of time. 5) measure mass change of nail. 6) repeat experiment
Describe the conditions under which iron rusts
oxygen and water
Do metals other than iron rust?
No. The term rust is only applied to iron
What is the chemical name of rust?
hydrated iron(III) oxide
Write the word equation for the formation of rust
iron + oxygen + water → hydrated iron (III) oxide
Explain how galvanising prevent rusting
Zinc is more reactive than iron. Zinc reacts with oxygen instead of iron
What is galvanising?
When zinc is used to coat a less reactive metal to prevent that metal from corrosion
State the methods of how the rusting of iron may be prevented
grease, oil, paint, plastic and galvanising
What is sacrificial protection?
Sacrificial protection is when a more reactive metal is connected to a less reactive metal. Only the more reactive metal corrodes, so protecting the less reactive metal
Explain why rusting is described as an oxidation reaction
iron gains oxygen
If a substance gains oxygen in a reaction how is the process described?
Oxidation
If a substance loses oxygen in a reaction how is the process described?
Reduction
Is the production of iron from iron ore oxidation or reduction?
Reduction
State the meaning of the term oxidising agent
A substance that gives oxygen (it is itself reduced)
State the meaning of the term redox
A reaction involving both reduction and oxidation
State the meaning of the term reducing agent
A substance that takes oxygen (it is itself oxidised)
What is it called when a metal reacts with oxygen in the air to form an oxide layer?
Oxidation
What is reduced in this equation and what is meant by reduction? WO₃ + 3H₂ → W + 3H₂O
Tungsten, W loses oxygen
Write the word equation to represent the reaction between hydrochloric acid and calcium
hydrochloric acid + calcium → calcium chloride + hydrogen
Write the word equation to represent the reaction between sulfuric acid and magnesium
sulfuric acid + magnesium → magnesium sulfate + hydrogen
(Triple only) State 2 properties that makes aluminium suitable for manufacturing aircraft
Low density & resists corrosion
(Triple only) State 2 properties that makes aluminium suitable for power cables
Ductile (drawn into a wire), conducts electricity and low density
(Triple only) State 3 properties that makes iron suitable for saucepans
Good conductor of heat, high melting point and malleable
(Triple only) State a property that makes iron suitable for building
Strong
(Triple only) State two properties of aluminium that make it suitable for use in food cans
Malleable and low density
(Triple only) Apart from being a mixture of metals, what non-metal is often added to alloys to make them stronger?
Carbon
(Triple only) What is a mixture of metals called?
An alloy
(Triple only) What is an alloy?
An alloy is a mixture of a metal and one or more elements, usually other metals or carbon
(Triple only) Alloys contain different sized positive ions. What properties does this give alloys compared to pure metals?
Alloys are harder and less malleable than pure metals
(Triple only) Why are alloys harder than pure metals?
Alloys contain different sized positive ions, so there are no layers of ions to slide over each other
acid + alkali →
acid + alkali → salt + water
acid + base →
acid + base → salt + water
acid + metal →
acid + metal → salt + hydrogen
acid + metal carbonate →
acid + metal carbonate → salt + carbon dioxide + water
Describe the observations of the reaction of aluminium and dilute hydrochloric acid
fizzing and metal disappears
Describe the observations of the reaction of calcium carbonate and dilute hydrochloric acid
fizzing and solid disappears
Describe the observations of the reaction of magnesium and dilute sulfuric acid
fizzing and metal disappears
Describe the observations of the reaction of zinc and dilute hydrochloric acid
fizzing and metal disappears
Give the formula of sulfuric acid
H₂SO₄
Give the name of the substance which has formula HNO₃
nitric acid
Give the name of the substance which has the formula HCl (aq)
hydrochloric acid
hydrochloric acid + magnesium →
hydrochloric acid + magnesium → magnesium chloride + hydrogen
hydrochloric acid + sodium hydroxide →
hydrochloric acid + sodium hydroxide → sodium chloride + water
nitric acid + calcium carbonate →
nitric acid + calcium carbonate → calcium nitrate + carbon dioxide + water
sulfuric acid + copper oxide →
sulfuric acid + copper oxide → copper sulfate + water
What two observations can be made when a metal reacts with an acid?
Bubbles. Metal disappears.
Write the equation to represent the reaction between copper oxide and sulfuric acid
sulfuric acid + copper oxide → copper sulfate + water
Write the equation to represent the reaction between nitric acid and copper carbonate
nitric acid + copper carbonate → copper nitrate + carbon dioxide + water
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