47 terms

iGCSE Chemistry: Acids & neutralisation - core

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If copper chloride has the formula CuCl₂, what is the formula of the copper ion?
Cu²⁺
If iron chloride has the formula FeCl₂, what is the formula of the iron ion?
Fe²⁺
If iron chloride has the formula FeCl₃, what is the formula of the iron ion?
Fe³⁺
If iron oxide has the formula FeO, what is the formula of the iron ion?
Fe²⁺
State the formula for the copper (II) ion
Cu²⁺
State the formula for the iron (II) ion
Fe²⁺
State the formula for the iron (III) ion
Fe³⁺
State the formula for the lead (II) ion
Pb²⁺
State the formula of the ammonium ion
NH₄⁺
State the formula of the carbonate ion
CO₃²⁻
State the formula of the hydroxide ion
OH⁻
State the formula of the nitrate ion
NO₃⁻
State the formula of the silver ion
Ag⁺
State the formula of the sulfate ion
SO₄²⁻
State the formula of the zinc ion
Zn²⁺
State the formula of the zinc ion
Zn²⁺
State the colour of litmus in acidic and alkaline solutions
acidic = red alkali = blue
State the colour of methyl orange in acidic and alkaline solutions
acidic = red alkali = yellow
State the colour of phenolphthalein in acidic and alkaline solutions
acidic = colourless alkali = pink
What is the universal indicator colour of a pH 0-3 solution?
Red
What is the universal indicator colour of a pH 11-14 solution?
Purple
What is the universal indicator colour of a pH 4-6 solution?
Yellow
What is the universal indicator colour of a pH 7 (neutral) solution?
Green
What is the universal indicator colour of a pH 8-10 solution?
Blue
What is an acid?
An acid is a source of hydrogen ions, H⁺
What is an alkali?
An alkali is a source of hydroxide ions, OH⁻
(Triple only) Describe how to carry out an acid-alkali titration
1) Pipette 25cm³ of alkali into a conical flask. 2) Add indicator. 3) Fill a burette with acid, record the initial volume. 4) Whilst swirling the flask, add the acid dropwise until the indicator changes colour. 5) Record the volume and calculate the volume of acid which was added. 6) Repeat until two concordant results (within 0.2cm³ of each other). 7) Result is the average of all concordant results.
(Triple only) Draw a burette
DRAWING
(Triple only) Draw a pipette
DRAWING
What is defined as a proton acceptor?
An alkali
What is defined as a proton donor?
An acid
An acid is called a proton _________
An acid is a proton donor
An alkali is called a proton _________
An alkali is a proton acceptor
acid + alkali →
acid + alkali → salt + water
acid + base →
acid + base → salt + water
acid + metal →
acid + metal → salt + hydrogen
acid + metal carbonate →
acid + metal carbonate → salt + carbon dioxide + water
Describe the observations of the reaction of calcium carbonate and dilute hydrochloric acid
fizzing and solid disappears
Describe the observations of the reaction of magnesium and dilute sulfuric acid
fizzing and metal disappears
Give the formula of sulfuric acid
H₂SO₄
Give the name of the substance which has formula HNO₃
nitric acid
Give the name of the substance which has the formula HCl (aq)
hydrochloric acid
hydrochloric acid + magnesium →
hydrochloric acid + magnesium → magnesium chloride + hydrogen
hydrochloric acid + sodium hydroxide →
hydrochloric acid + sodium hydroxide → sodium chloride + water
nitric acid + calcium carbonate →
nitric acid + calcium carbonate → calcium nitrate + carbon dioxide + water
sulfuric acid + copper oxide →
sulfuric acid + copper oxide → copper sulfate + water
What is an alkali compared to a base?
Alkalis are bases that are soluble in water