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reproductive system chap 28
Terms in this set (31)
female reproductive system
Primary sex organs ofthe female are the ovaries.
Accessory sex organs include the:
ovaries and oogenesis
Paired, on either sided of uterus
Responsible for secretion of hormones
Responsible for the production of ova (oocyte, egg), produced in cortex. Within the cortex are thousands of ovarian follicles.
Oocytes are surrounded by follicle cells, which support the oocyte.
Several different stages of ovarian follicles can be found in the ovary
The process of oogenesis occurs in a female fetus before birth. At this time, the ovary contains primordial germ cells called oogonia, which are diploid
During the fetal period, the oogonia start the process of meiosis, but they are stopped at prophase I. At this point, the cells are called primary oocytes.
At birth, the ovary of a female child is estimated to contain approximately 1.5 to 2 million primordial follicles within its cortex.
The primary oocytes in the primordial follicles remain arrested in prophase I until puberty
time when a woman is nearing menopause, estrogen levels begin to drop, typically onset between 45 and 55 years
absence of normal body opening
At puberty, the hypothalamus releases GnRH, which stimulates the ant. pit. to release FSH and LH (menarche).
The levels of FSH and LH vary in a cyclical pattern and produce a monthly ovarian cycle.
The three phases of the ovarian cycle.
the menstrual stage in which the corpus luteum develops
an atrophied corpus luteum
Also called fallopian tubes, oviducts or uterine horns; extend laterally from both sides of the uterus toward the ovaries.
Fimbriae are finger-like projections off the end.
Lined with ciliated simple columnar that beat towards the uterus, peristaltic contractions of smooth muscle also helps move oocyte.
In these tubes, the secondary oocyte is fertilized, and the pre-embryo begins to develop as it travels toward the uterus.
Travel time: about 5 to 6 days to reach the lumen of the uterus.
Once egg is ovulated, viability is only 12-24 hours.
Site for implantation: pre-embryo implants into the inner uterine wall and becomes connected to the lining, develops into the placenta
Site for menstruation: if an oocyte is not fertilized or after a baby is expelled, the muscular wall of the uterus contracts and sheds its inner lining as menstruation
Regions: fundus, body, cervix
endometrium (functional zone), myometrium
(smooth muscle), perimetrium (serous)
Supports, protects, and nourishes the developing embryo/fetus
Ejects the fetus at birth after maternal oxytocin levels increase to initiate the uterine contractions of labor.
uterus sheds its lining and causes period; starts at first day of minstration and lasts for 5 days
phase of menstrual cycle that begins after the menstrual flow ends and lasts until ovulation
the phase of the menstrual cycle during which the corpus luteum develops and secretes progesterone
phase of menstrual cycle that begins at ovulation and lasts until the next menses begins
The vagina is a thick-walled, smooth muscle tube.
The vagina connects the uterus with the outside of the body anteroventrally.
Functions as the birth canal, copulatory organ & serves as the passageway for menstruation.
Wall is heavily invested with both blood and lymphatic vessels.
Lining is stratified squamous and moistened by cervical gland secretions
Resident bacteria obtain nutrients from cervical mucous (pH 3.5-4.5) to restrict growth of other types of bacteria
Vulva: external sex organs in females.
Mons pubis: expanse of skin, C.T. & adipose anterior to the pubic symphysis. Covered with pubic hair in postpubescent females
Labia minora: glans of clitoris located at the anterior regions of the labia minora
Vestibule: opening between labia minora
Vestibular glands: discharge secretions onto surface of vestibule to keep it moist during arousal.
glands located in the breast that produce milk
projection from the breast into which the lactiferous ducts open
Circular pigmented area of skin surrounding the nipple
sebaceous glands cause the uneven surface
secrete fluid that moistens and lubricates vestibule and vaginal opening during intercourse
male reproductive system
Primary gonads are the
Accessory sex organs
a complex set of ducts and tubules
a group of male accessory glands
penis, which is the organ of copulation
The gonads and the first portion of the duct system reside outside the body proper
within a skin-covered sac.
Sperm production is best at approx. 1 degree C. lower than body temp.
Seminiferous tubules where spermatogenesis takes place.
Sustentacular cells (nurse/Sertoli) located within the tubes, provide cells with nutrients and stim. spermatogenesis.
Secretes inhibin: decreases FSH, keeps sperm production at normal levels
Interstitial spaces: spaces surrounding the seminiferous tubules.
Interstitial (Leydig) cells: within interstitial spaces, produce hormones called androgens
Spermatogenesis & secondary sexual characteristics (axillary and pubic hair)
Lies mostly on the superior surface of the testis.
Internally, is a long, convoluted duct, approx. 4-5m in length.
Sperm reside in the epididymis for a period of time to become mature and fully motile.
expelled too soon, they lack the motility.
not ejected in a timely manner, the old sperm degenerate in the epididymis.
Damaged spermatozoa are recycled.
Sperm enter when they leave the
Thick-walled tube that travels through the inguinal canal, and within the pelvic cavity before it reaches the prostate gland.
Peristaltic contractions of the muscular walls help to move the sperm along its journey.
Some sperm are stored for several months
Unites with the seminal vesicle to form the ejaculatory duct, penetrates the prostate then empties into the urethra.
Conducts urine and semen to
Regions: root, body/shaft, glans,
prepuce/foreskin, external urethral orifice
Smegma secretions (waxy) produced
During arousal, parasympathetic
stimulation dilates arterial blood vessels to erectile tissue to cause erection
Corpora cavernosa (2) and corpora spongiosum (1) surrounds urethra
Ejaculation is due to sympathetic
Seminal fluid from the accessory glands combines with sperm from the testes to make up semen.
When released during intercourse, semen is called the ejaculate
normally volume about 2 to 5 milliliters and contains approximately 20 to 500 million spermatozoa.
The average transit time of human spermatozoa—from their release in the seminiferous tubules to the ejaculate is about 2 weeks.
Functions: activates sperm, provide nutrients, enzymes, lubrication, buffers acidity of urethral and vagina.
two small glands that secrete a fluid rich in sugar that nourishes and helps sperm move
merges with a vas deferens to form the
a firm partly muscular chestnut sized gland in males at the neck of the urethra
adds a chemical fluid to the semen
the two glands below the prostate that secrete a sticky fluid that becomes a component of semen
produces a lubricating mucus that cleanses the urethra
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