137 terms

iGCSE Chemistry: Salts Preparation - test myself

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1.170 g of CoCl₂.xH₂O gave a residue of 0.641 g on heating. Find x.
6
7.485 g of a hydrated copper(II) sulphate CuSO₄.xH₂O was heated producing 4.785g of anhydrous copper(II) sulphate. What is the formula of the hydrated salt?
CuSO₄.5H₂O
State the steps for calculating empirical formula
1) mass/Ar. 2) divide by the smallest. 3) Give the ratio has a whole number. 4) State final empirial formula
What is the empirical formula of an alcohol with the analysis; 52.2% C, 13.0% H and 34.8% O?
C₂H₆O
What is the formula of a compound in which 0.48 g of carbon combines with 0.08 g of hydrogen and 0.64 g of oxygen?
CH₂O
Work out the empirical formula of an oxide of chlorine contains 7.1 g of chlorine and 1.6 g of oxygen.
Cl₂O
Is aluminium carbonate soluble?
no (All carbonates are insoluble except ammonium, sodium and potassium)
Is aluminium chloride soluble?
yes (All chlorides are soluble except lead and silver. )
Is aluminium nitrate soluble?
yes (All nitrates are soluble. )
Is aluminium sulfate soluble?
yes (All sulfates are soluble except lead, barium and calcium. )
Is ammonium carbonate soluble?
yes (All ammonium salts are soluble. )
Is ammonium chloride soluble?
yes (All ammonium salts are soluble. )
Is ammonium nitrate soluble?
yes (All ammonium salts are soluble. )
Is ammonium sulfate soluble?
yes (All ammonium salts are soluble. )
Is barium carbonate soluble?
no (All carbonates are insoluble except ammonium, sodium and potassium)
Is barium chloride soluble?
yes (All chlorides are soluble except lead and silver. )
Is barium nitrate soluble?
yes (All nitrates are soluble. )
Is barium sulfate soluble?
no (Barium, lead and calcium are the only insoluble sulfates. )
Is calcium carbonate soluble?
no (All carbonates are insoluble except ammonium, sodium and potassium)
Is calcium chloride soluble?
yes (All chlorides are soluble except lead and silver. )
Is calcium nitrate soluble?
yes (All nitrates are soluble. )
Is calcium sulfate soluble?
no (Barium, lead and calcium are the only insoluble sulfates. )
Is copper carbonate soluble?
no (All carbonates are insoluble except ammonium, sodium and potassium)
Is copper chloride soluble?
yes (All chlorides are soluble except lead and silver. )
Is copper nitrate soluble?
yes (All nitrates are soluble. )
Is copper sulfate soluble?
yes (All sulfates are soluble except lead, barium and calcium. )
Is iron carbonate soluble?
no (All carbonates are insoluble except ammonium, sodium and potassium)
Is iron chloride soluble?
yes (All chlorides are soluble except lead and silver. )
Is iron nitrate soluble?
yes (All nitrates are soluble. )
Is iron sulfate soluble?
yes (All sulfates are soluble except lead, barium and calcium. )
Is lead carbonate soluble?
no (All carbonates are insoluble except ammonium, sodium and potassium)
Is lead chloride soluble?
no (All chlorides are soluble except lead and silver. )
Is lead nitrate soluble?
yes (All nitrates are soluble. )
Is lead sulfate soluble?
no (All sulfates are soluble except lead, barium and calcium. )
Is magnesium carbonate soluble?
no (All carbonates are insoluble except ammonium, sodium and potassium)
Is magnesium chloride soluble?
yes (All chlorides are soluble except lead and silver. )
Is magnesium nitrate soluble?
yes (All nitrates are soluble. )
Is magnesium sulfate soluble?
yes (All sulfates are soluble except lead, barium and calcium. )
Is potassium carbonate soluble?
yes (All potassium salts are soluble. )
Is potassium chloride soluble?
yes (All potassium salts are soluble. )
Is potassium nitrate soluble?
yes (All potassium salts are soluble. )
Is potassium sulfate soluble?
yes (All potassium salts are soluble. )
Is silver carbonate soluble?
no (All carbonates are insoluble except ammonium, sodium and potassium)
Is silver chloride soluble?
no (Silver and lead are the only chloride salts which are insoluble. )
Is silver nitrate soluble?
yes (All nitrates are soluble. )
Is silver sulfate soluble?
yes (All sulfates are soluble except lead, barium and calcium. )
Is sodium carbonate soluble?
yes (All sodium salts are soluble. )
Is sodium chloride soluble?
yes (All sodium salts are soluble. )
Is sodium nitrate soluble?
yes (All sodium salts are soluble. )
Is sodium sulfate soluble?
yes (All sodium salts are soluble. )
Is zinc carbonate soluble?
no (All carbonates are insoluble except ammonium, sodium and potassium)
Is zinc chloride soluble?
yes (All chlorides are soluble except lead and silver. )
Is zinc nitrate soluble?
yes (All nitrates are soluble. )
Is zinc sulfate soluble?
yes (All sulfates are soluble except lead, barium and calcium. )
Is zinc hydroxide soluble?
no (All hydroxides are insoluble, except those of sodium, potassium and calcium (calcium hydroxide is slightly soluble))
Is copper (II) hydroxide soluble?
no (All hydroxides are insoluble, except those of sodium, potassium and calcium (calcium hydroxide is slightly soluble))
Is sodium hydroxide soluble?
yes (All hydroxides are insoluble, except those of sodium, potassium and calcium (calcium hydroxide is slightly soluble))
Is calcium hydroxide soluble?
slightly (All hydroxides are insoluble, except those of sodium, potassium and calcium (calcium hydroxide is slightly soluble))
Is potassium hydroxide soluble?
yes (All hydroxides are insoluble, except those of sodium, potassium and calcium (calcium hydroxide is slightly soluble))
Is iron (II) hydroxide soluble?
no (All hydroxides are insoluble, except those of sodium, potassium and calcium (calcium hydroxide is slightly soluble))
Is iron (III) hydroxide soluble?
no (All hydroxides are insoluble, except those of sodium, potassium and calcium (calcium hydroxide is slightly soluble))
Is silver hydroxide soluble?
no (All hydroxides are insoluble, except those of sodium, potassium and calcium (calcium hydroxide is slightly soluble))
Is lead hydroxide soluble?
no (All hydroxides are insoluble, except those of sodium, potassium and calcium (calcium hydroxide is slightly soluble))
State the solubility rule for carbonates salts
all carbonates are insoluble, except those of sodium, potassium and ammonium
State the solubility rule for chloride salts
all are soluble, except silver chloride and lead chloride
State the solubility rule for nitrate salts
all nitrates are soluble
State the solubility rule for sodium, potassium and ammonium salts
all common sodium, potassium and ammonium salts are soluble
State the solubility rule for sulfate salts
all sulfates are soluble, except those of lead, barium and calcium
State the solubility rule for hydroxide salts
all hydroxides are insoluble, except those of sodium, potassium and calcium (calcium hydroxide is slightly soluble)
A pure, dry sample of a soluble salt can be prepared starting with an insoluble reactant. What is this method called?
Excess solid method
Describe the method to prepare a pure dry sample of copper sulfate (soluble salt)
1) Heat acid in a beaker. 2) Add base until excess and stir with glass rod. 3) Filter the mixture using filter paper and funnel. 4) Heat the filtered solution (filtrate) until a hot saturated solution forms. 5) Allow the solution to cool so that hydrated crystals form. 6) Remove the crystals by filtration and wash with distilled water. 7) Dry by leaving in a warm place.
(Triple only) A pure, dry sample of a soluble salt can be prepared starting from an acid and alkali. What are the two stages of this method called?
Titration then crystallisation
(Triple only) Describe the method to prepare a pure dry sample of sodium chloride (soluble salt)
1) Pipette 25cm³ of alkali into a conical flask. 2) Do not add indicator. 3) (Using titration values)Titrate the known volume acid into conical flask containing alkali. 4) Transfer to an evaporating basin. 5) Heat the solution until a hot saturated solution forms. 6) Allow the solution to cool so that hydrated crystals form. 7) Remove the crystals by filtration and wash with distilled water. 8) Dry by leaving in a warm place.
(Triple only) A pure, dry sample of an insoluble salt can be prepared starting with two soluble reactants. What is this method called?
Precipitation method
(Triple only) Describe an experiment to prepare a pure, dry sample of an insoluble salt, starting from two soluble reactants
1) Mix the two salt solutions together in a beaker. 2) Stir with glass rod. 3) Filter using filter paper and funnel. 4) Wash with distilled water. 5) Dry by leaving in a warm place.
When preparing hydrated copper(II) sulfate crystals starting from copper(II) oxide, why is an excess of copper (II) oxide added?
To ensure all the acid has reacted so there is no acid left
When preparing hydrated copper(II) sulfate crystals starting from copper(II) oxide, why is the acid gently heated?
To speed up the reaction
(Triple only) What method would be followed to prepare a sample of pure, dry lead (II) sulfate?
Precipitation method
A gas is bubbled through limewater and the limewater goes cloudy. Identify the gas.
Carbon dioxide
Describe the test for ammonia gas
Turns damp red litmus paper blue
Describe the test for carbon dioxide gas
Bubble the gas through limewater and see if it goes cloudy
Describe the test for chlorine gas
Turns moist litmus paper white (bleaches)
Describe the test for hydrogen gas
Use a lit splint to see if the gas pops
Describe the test for oxygen gas
Use a glowing splint and see if it relights
In the test of a gas, a glowing splint relights. What is the gas?
Oxygen
In the test of a gas, a lit splint gives a squeaky pop. What is the gas?
Hydrogen
Which gas will bleach moist litmus paper?
Chlorine
Which gas will turn damp red litmus paper blue?
Ammonia
Describe how you would carry out a flame test
Put solid onto a wire. Put into a blue flame
In a flame test, why is hydrochloric acid used?
To clean the wire of any unwanted ions
How are calcium ions identified, and what is the result?
Using a flame test. Flame colour is orange- red
How are lithium ions identified, and what is the result?
Using a flame test. Flame colour is red
How are potassium ions identified, and what is the result?
Using a flame test. Flame colour is lilac
How are sodium ions identified, and what is the result?
Using a flame test. Flame colour is yellow
In a flame test, a blue-green colour is seen. Give the formula of the cation which is present.
Cu²⁺
In a flame test, a orange-red colour is seen. Give the formula of the cation which is present.
Ca²⁺
In a flame test, a red colour is seen. Give the formula of the cation which is present.
Li⁺
In a flame test, a lilac colour is seen. Give the formula of the cation which is present.
K⁺
In a flame test, a yellow colour is seen. Give the formula of the cation which is present.
Na⁺
In the flame test for copper (II) ions what colour is the result?
Blue-green
Give the name of the blue precipitate formed when sodium hydroxide is added to a solution containing Cu²⁺
copper (II) hydroxide
Give the name of the brown precipitate formed when sodium hydroxide is added to a solution containing Fe³⁺
iron (III) hydroxide
Give the name of the green precipitate formed when sodium hydroxide is added to a solution containing Fe²⁺
iron (II) hydroxide
How would you test for the ammonium ion (NH₄⁺)?
Add sodium hydroxide. If ammonium ions were present, ammonia gas will form which will turn damp red litmus paper blue
What is the test for copper (II) ions (Cu²⁺) and what is the result?
Add NaOH. A blue precipitate forms.
What is the test for iron (II) ions (Fe²⁺) and what is the result?
Add NaOH. A green precipitate forms.
What is the test for iron (III) ions (Fe³⁺) and what is the result?
Add NaOH. A brown precipitate forms.
What is the test for NH₄⁺ ions and what is the result?
Add NaOH. The gas (ammonia) turns damp red litmus paper blue.
When NaOH is added to a sample, a blue precipitate forms. What cation was present in the sample?
Copper (II), Cu²⁺
When NaOH is added to a sample, a brown precipitate forms. What cation was present in the sample?
Iron (III), Fe³⁺
When NaOH is added to a sample, a green precipitate forms. What cation was present in the sample?
Iron (II), Fe²⁺
When NaOH is added to a sample, the resultant gas turns damp red litmus paper blue. What cation was present in the sample?
Ammonium, NH₄⁺
Write a word equation for the reaction between sodium hydroxide and iron(II) sulfate
sodium hydroxide + iron(II) sulfate → iron (II) hydroxide + sodium sulfate
Nitric acid and silver nitrate are added to a solution containing bromide ions. Describe the result.
Cream precipitate
Nitric acid and silver nitrate are added to a solution containing chloride ions. Describe the result.
White precipitate
Nitric acid and silver nitrate are added to a solution containing iodide ions. Describe the result.
Yellow precipitate
Describe how you would test for carbonate ions (CO₃²⁻) and what is the result if they are present?
Add nitric acid and see if carbon dioxide bubbles form
Describe how you would test for sulfate ions (SO₄²⁻) and what is the result if they are present?
Add dilute HCl, followed by barium chloride (BaCl₂). A white precipitate will form
Describe the test for bromide ions
Add dilute nitric acid and silver nitrate. A cream precipitate of silver bromide is formed.
In the test for carbonate ions, what is added to the sample?
nitric acid (HNO₃)
In the test for carbonate ions, what result shows they are present?
bubbles form
In the test for sulfate ions, what result shows they are present?
A white precipitate is formed
In the test for sulfate ions, what two substances are added to the sample?
hydrochloric acid (HCl) and then barium chloride (BaCl₂)
What 2 things are added to a solution to test for chloride ions? What is observed if they are present?
Add dilute nitric acid and silver nitrate. A white precipitate of silver chloride is formed.
When testing a sample for ions, hydrochloric acid and then barium chloride are added to a sample. A white precipitate forms. What ions have been shown to be present?
sulfate ions (SO₄²⁻)
When testing a sample for ions, hydrochloric acid and then barium chloride are added to a sample. A white precipitate forms. What is the name of that precipitate?
barium sulfate
When testing a sample for ions, nitric acid is added to a sample and then bubbles are seen. What ions have been shown to be present?
carbonate ions (CO₃²⁻)
When testing a sample of ammonium iodide, nitric acid and then silver nitrate is added. Describe the result, and name the substance formed.
A yellow precipitate of silver iodide
When testing a sample of lithium bromide, nitric acid and then silver nitrate is added. Describe the result, and name the substance formed.
A cream precipitate of silver bromide
When testing a sample of potassium chloride, nitric acid and then silver nitrate is added. Describe the result, and name the substance formed.
A white precipitate of silver chloride
When testing for halide ions, after silver nitrate is added to a sample a cream precipitate is formed. Give the formula of the anion present in the sample.
Br⁻
When testing for halide ions, after silver nitrate is added to a sample a white precipitate is formed. Give the formula of the anion present in the sample.
Cl⁻
When testing for halide ions, after silver nitrate is added to a sample a yellow precipitate is formed. Give the formula of the anion present in the sample.
I⁻
When testing for halide or sulfate ions, why is acid added added first?
to remove any carbonate ions
Which two substances are added when testing for halide ions, and what is the result if they are present?
Add dilute nitric acid and silver nitrate. A precipitate forms
Which two substances are added when testing for the sulfate (SO₄²⁻) ions? (2)
Add dilute HCl, followed by barium chloride (BaCl₂)
Write an chemical equation for the reaction between barium chloride and lithium sulfate (Li₂SO₄). Include state symbols. Also, what would you see?
BaCl₂ (aq) + Li₂SO₄ (aq) → BaSO₄ (s)+ 2LiCl (aq). Observe a white precipitate of barium sulfate.