42 terms

iGCSE Chemistry: alcohols & carboxylic acids - core

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(Triple only) Of which homologous series is -OH the functional group?
Alcohols
(Triple only) What is the functional group of alcohols?
-OH
(Triple only) Draw the structural and displayed formulae for methanol
(Triple only) Ethanol is a flammable liquid. Suggest how it could be heated safely
Use a water bath
(Triple only) Draw the displayed formula for ethanol, C₂H₅OH
(Triple only) State the conditions needed for the manufacture of ethanol by the fermentation of sugars.
Temp: 30°C, Catalyst: zymase (enzyme found in yeast), Anaerobic conditions, i.e no oxygen
(Triple only) State the conditions needed for the manufacture of ethanol using ethene and steam.
Temp: 300°C, Pressure: 60 atm and Catalyst: Phosphoric acid, H₃PO₄
(Triple only) State the name of the reaction used to manufacture ethanol using ethene and steam.
Hydration
(Triple only) State the name of the reaction used to manufacture ethanol from sugars.
Fermentation
(Triple only) State the raw materials needed for manufacture of ethanol by the fermentation of sugars.
Sugar cane
(Triple only) State the raw materials needed for the manufacture of ethanol using ethene and steam.
Crude oil and water
(Triple only) What are the advantages/disadvantages of using the fermentation of glucose to manufacture ethanol.
Advantages: Uses renewable resources, e.g sugar cane. Uses low temp and pressure therefore low energy input. Disadvantages: Uses batch process which is inefficient. Slow rate of reaction. Impure product.
(Triple only) What are the advantages/disadvantages of using the hydration of ethene to manufacture ethanol.
Advantages: Uses continuous process which is efficient. Fast rate of reaction. Pure product. Disadvantages: Uses finite resources, e.g crude oil cane. Uses high temp and pressure therefore high energy input.
(Triple only) When fermentation is used to produce ethanol, what is the temperature? Why is this temperature used?
30°C (much hotter would denature the enzymes in the yeast)
(Triple only) Which reactants are used to produce ethanol in a industry?
ethene and steam
(Triple only) Write the chemical equation for manufacture of ethanol by passing ethene and steam.
C₂H₄ +H₂0 → C₂H₅0H
(Triple only) Write the chemical equation for manufacture of ethanol by the fermentation of sugars.
C₆H₁₂O₆ → 2C₂H₅OH + 2CO₂
(Triple only) In the production of ethanol by fermentation, why is the process done at an optimal temperature of 30⁰C?
At 30⁰C the yeast is warm enough to perform anaerobic respiration, but below the temperature at which the zymase enzyme would denature
(Triple only) In the production of ethanol by fermentation, why is the process done in the absence of air?
If air were present, the ethanol would oxidise and form ethanoic acid
(Triple only) Of which homologous series is -COOH the functional group?
Carboxylic acids
(Triple only) What is the functional group of a carboxylic acid?
-COOH
(Triple only) Give the name, structural formula and displayed formulae of the straight-chained carboxylic acid with 2 carbons
(Triple only) Give the name, structural formula and displayed formulae of the straight-chained carboxylic acid with 3 carbons
(Triple only) magnesium + ethanoic acid →
magnesium + ethanoic acid → magnesium ethanoate + hydrogen
(Triple only) sodium carbonate + ethanoic acid →
sodium carbonate + ethanoic acid → sodium ethanoate + carbon dioxide + water
(Triple only) What observation is made when an aqueous solution of a carboxylic acid reacts with a metal carbonate? What product is responsible for this observation?
Bubbles of carbon dioxide
(Triple only) What observation is made when an aqueous solution of a carboxylic acid reacts with a metal? What product is responsible for this observation?
Bubbles of hydrogen
(Triple only) Vinegar is an aqueous solution which always includes which compound?
Ethanoic acid
(Triple only) What common food-stuff contains a high proportion of ethanoic acid?
Vinegar
(Triple only) Of which homologous series is -COO- the functional group?
Esters
(Triple only) What is the functional group of an ester?
-COO-
(Triple only) What 2 reactants are used to produce ethyl ethanoate?
Ethanol and ethanoic acid
(Triple only) Which ester is produced when ethanol and ethanoic acid react in the presence of an acid catalyst?
Ethyl ethanoate
(Triple only) Draw the displayed formula for ethyl ethanoate
(Triple only) Write the structural formula for ethyl ethanoate
CH₃COOCH₂CH₃
(Triple only) Name the ester produced by the reaction of butanol and ethanoic acid. Show the structural and displayed formulae.
(Triple only) Name the ester produced by the reaction of ethanol and methanoic acid. Show the structural and displayed formulae.
(Triple only) Name 2 uses of esters
Food flavourings and in perfumes
(Triple only) What 2 properties makes esters useful in food flavourings and in perfumes?
Esters are volatile with distinctive smells
(Triple only) A few drops of what should be added to ethanoic acid and ethanol to produce ethyl ethanoate?
Concentrated sulfuric acid
(Triple only) What is the process of forming an ester called?
Esterification
(Triple only) What type of reaction is esterification (the making of an ester)?
Condensation reaction
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