Pelger-Huet Anomaly Birman Cat neutrophil granulation: Neuts have red granules mucopolysaccharidoses: Neuts and lymphs have purple granules, lysosomal storage disease along with GM2 Ganliosidosis - progress neurological dz and cytoplastic granulation/vaculation Chediak-Higashi syndrome
Mature hyposegmented neutrophils/eosinophils with coarse chromatin pattern No segmented neutrophils are present in this animals and they are healthy also affects eosinophils
pink stained fused lysosomes typically affect Persians - slight tendency to bleed otherwise healthy
measure of frequency with which the test result is positive or abnormal with animals that have the disease TP/((TP)(FN)) x 100
What is Specificity?
measure of frequency in which test shows negative or normal for those without disease TN/((TN))(FP)) x 100
What are the lab abnormalities assoc. with IMHA?
decreased PCV, RBC's, hemoglobin concentration excess hemoglobin in blood and urine excess bilirubin in blood and urine Spherocytosis most important
How do you tell blood loss from destruction?
If total protein is high: blood destruction If total protein is low: blood destruction however, body will reabsorb blood lost to body cavity
What are the causes of increased MCV?
Regenerative anemia - immature erythrocytes that are polychromatophilic, FeLV, myelodysplasia, Poodles, Alaskan Malamutes, Mini schauners, and Dutch partridge dogs, blood that has been sitting out too long
What is the most common cause of increased MCV?
What would cause an increased MCV in a cat with non regenerative anemia?
Hematologic abnormalities with Anemia of Inflammatory disease?
Microcytosis, decrease: serum Fe and total binding capacity Increase: ferritin, hemosiderin, and storage in BM inflammatory leukogram and normal to microcytic MCV's
What hematological abnormalities would you see with a dog with renal disease?
Anemia: moderate to severe, nonregenerative, normocytic
What causes toxic neutrophils?
inflammatory responses, regenerative anemia immature neutrophils with organelles/ribosomes and Dohle bodies (fragments of endoplasmic reticulum) basophilic cytoplasm
What causes neonatal isoerythrolysis?
form of immune mediated hemolytic anemia mom's Ab's against the neonate's blood group antigen most common in horses (non thoroughbred ones)
What lab findings for lead poisoning?
Basophilic stippling: aggregation of ribosomes, Typically associated with intensely regenerative anemia
What species is basophilic stippling seen with regenerative anemia?
Cows Dogs/Cats with intensely regenerative anemia
What are some causes of falsely increased hemoglobin concentration?
Hemolysis, Lipemia, and very large number of Heinz bodies in cats
How would falsely increased hemoglobin concentration affect the MCHC?
(HGB/PCV)(100) = MCHC
What tests require lysis of erthyrocytes?
Hemoglobin, Unopette, Saline - for IMHA, and iron
RBC abnormalities in APAP tox?
Heinz body formation
RBC abnormalities in IMHA?
Spherocytes, Agglutination, and ghost cells
RBC abnormalities in Lead poisoning?
Basophilic stippling, Howell Jolly bodies, and Nucleated RBC's
RBC abnormalities in Hemagiosarcoma?
Acanthocytosis, Schistocytes, Mesothelial cells in abdomen, polychromasia
RBC abnormalities in Fe deficiency anemia?
microcytosis, schistocytes, hypochromatic keratocytes, and blister cells
RBC abnormalities in Rattlesnake envenomation?
echinocytes, type III, spheroechinocytes
What species would a degenerative left shift be less omnimous?
Why is degenerative left shift omnious in other species?
suggestive of an aggressive inflammatory lesion
What are the causes of lymphocytosis?
Lymphoma, lymphocytic leukemia, multiple myeloma, excitement (particularly in cats) and ERLICHOSIS Lymphocytes are relatively normal in ruminants
What is the progression of Neutrophil maturation?
Proliferative: Myeloblast, Progranulocyte, Myelocyte, Maturation/storage: Metamyelocyte, Band Neutrophil, Neutrophil
At what concentration of lymphocytes/mL would you diagnose lymphoid leukemia?
What concentrations of Neutrophils/mL would you diagnose granulocytic leukemia?
neutrophils > 100,000 mL
What, other than magnitude, would you consider granulocytic leukemia?
marked neutrophilia, disorderly left shift, and anemia, blast crises: increased concentration of myeloblasts
Describe an excitement leukogram
neutrophilia with normal to higher end lymphocytes due to increased epi - marginated to circulating pool NO LEFT SHIFT lymphocytosis is hallmark of feline excitement response
Describe a stress leukogram
neutrophilia with lymphopenia (typical of sick animals) /eosinopenia NO LEFT SHIFT pain, illness, metabolic issues tx with steroids or steroid producing tumors
Describe an inflammatory leukogram
neutrophilia with increase bands and monocytosis - when greatly increased (neut/mono's) - think myelomonocytic leukemia
What are two criteria that are indicative of an inflammatory leukogram?
2 x increase of neutrophils about normal limit and increased left shift
What is the most common cause of lymphopenia?
Stress - increase of cortisol, acute viral infections such as distemper and parvo
What lab. abnormalities are assoc. with anemia of inflammatory disease?
inflammatory leukogram increased: neutrophils/bands and ferritin, and stainable Fe stores decreased: serum iron and total binding capacity
What are 2 x causes of thrombocytopenia when assoc. with IMHA?
agglutination and DIC
Describe the different causes of polycythemia?
increase of concentration of RBC's dehydration, decreased plasma volume, splenic contraction in poodles, greyhounds, and dachshunds, hypoxia - increase of erythropoietin, methemoglobinemia
What laboratory tests could you use?
arterial blood gas analysis - PaO2 < 60 mmHg, then hypoxia kidney functioning - tumor of the kidney thus increasing erythropoietin
How do you calculate absolute # of various leukocytes?
TNCC x % of particular leukocyte = absolute #
How do you calculate the absolute # of reticulocytes?
RBC x %reticulolycte = absolute #
What type of blood tube is used for a CBC?
purple with EDTA too much EDTA would result in Leptocytes/Codocytes
What type of blood tube is used for a Biochemical profile?
Sure Sep, red top, or Heparin (lead concentration)
What type of blood tube is used for coagulation tests?
Blue top with Citrate
What happens to lab results if one doesn't put enough blood in a purple tube?
erythrocytes shrink so you get an erroneous decrease in PCV and MCV, leptocytes and codocytes
What is the progession of red blood cell maturation?
Rubiblast, Prorubricyte, Metarubricyte, and mature erythrocyte Dog: 24-48, Cat: Aggregates become punctates in 12 hours and punctates persist for 12 days - not counted
Anemia (non-regenerative) thrombopenia - will spontaneously bleed if < 10, 000, decreased WBC, lymphocytosis, large granular lymphocytes
Which species has the largest RBC?
Which species has the smallest RBC
What is the buffy coat?
white blood cells, platelets and NRBC's
What will artificially increase plasma protein?
Glucose, Lipemia, Urea, Cholesterol
Increased albumin is always due to?
How do you calculate a hematocrit?
(MCV)(RBC)/10 = HCT (PCV)
What causes an increase in MCHC?
Nothing - increases are ALWAYS artifactual things erroneously can like lipemia, hemolysis, and heinz bodies but it can never truly happen
Round cell tumors
Mast cell tumors, Cutaneous lymphoma, histocytoma, and plasmacytoma
Red cell leukemia, Rubriblasts in peripheral blood
Acquired lymphocyte vacuolation
plants containing swainsonine - locoweed - which results in inhibition of lysosomal enzymes resulting in dz similar to alpha-mannosidosis
Causes of neutropenia?
consumption with inflammatory Immune mediated destruction Bone marrow problems either reversible or irreversible reversible: canine parvo, feline panleukopenia, chemotheraputic drugs irreversible: FeLV
What are inherited lymphocyte abnormalities?
MPS/GM2 gangliosidosis may result in cytoplasmic granulation/vacuolation Fucosidosis, alpha mannosidosis, acid lipase deficiency, and Nieman Pick: vacuolation without granulation MPS/acid lipase def do not cause severe progressive neuro
Aquired lymphocyte vacuolation
ingestion of plants containing swainsonine - locoweed - which results in inhibition of lysosomal enzymes resulting in what looks like alpha mannosidosis
What are eccentrocytes?
Shifting of hemoglobin to one side of cell often seen with heinz bodies
dark blue rods or rings on surface of RBC severe hemolytic anemia regnerative unless with FeLV
Rare, "y" shaped, opportunistic: splenctomized or nonfunctional spleen Spherocytes and Agglutination
Cytauxzoon felis: basophilic ring with nucleus, hemolytic and non regenerative anemia, leukopenia/thrombocytopenia Babesia canis and gibsoni: intra/extravascular hemolysis
opportunists like canis: splenctomized or immune compromised iatrogenic: one needle many cows dependent edema/lymphadenopathy
normal in horses, suggests increased globulin in small animals To difference agglutination from rouleaux: add saline - if rouleaux will disperse and agglutination will persist
List ddx for spherocytosis
IMHA, mismatched blood transfusion, rattlesnake envenomation, heinz body anemia in horses (band 3 clustering (B3C)), zinc toxicosis (B3C), and bee stings (B3C)
Ruminants: marginale and centrale tick borne rickettsial, fatal hemolytic anemia, immune mediated hemolytic destruction Blood film: parasites and basophilic stippling in polychrom ery.
Protozoals cx: hemolytic anemia affect deer RBC's in merozoite
Protozoan, RBC's - piroplasms, Macrophages - schizonts trans by ticks, almost always fatal
What bacteria cause hemolytic anemia?
Clostridium perfringens A: "Yellow Lamb disease" Clostridium haemolyticum: "Red Water Disease" in cattle fluke creates a nice environment for bacterium
Pyruvate Kinase deficiency
Dogs: basenji, beagle, West Highland, and Cairn decreased glucose utilization/ATP formation results in RBC destruction
English springer spaniels dec. syn of 2,3-diphos., PCV normal, crisis when alkalemic
What causes "pink tooth" in cattle?
def. of uroporphyrinogen III co-synthase resulting in unability to syn. hemoglobin, accumulation of uroporyphrin/coproporphyrin in bones/teeth - photosensitivity
General Bone marrow suppression FeLV, Ehrlichia, and Estrogen in dogs/ferrets, EIA