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Nutrition Chapter 5
Terms in this set (54)
What are the 3 types of Lipids?
What are Phospholipids?
-1 glycerol, 2 fatty acids and 1 phosphate
What are Sterols?
-Multiple Carbon Rings
Where is cholesterol found in the diet?
How much cholesterol must be consumed in the diet?
-We don't need to eat it
-Less than 300mg/day
What are triglycerides composed of?
3 fatty acids, 1 glycerol
What is the most common type of lipid eaten and stored in the body?
What characteristics differentiate fatty acids from one another?
-Saturation (saturated, monounsaturated, polyunsaturate)
-Shape ( -trans vs. -cis)
Hydrogens are on opposite side of the carbon chain
Hydrogens are on the same side of the carbon chain
Structure of Saturated Fatty Acid
No double bonds
Structure of Monounsaturated Fatty Acid
One double Bond
Structure of Polyunsaturated Fatty Acid
Two or more double bonds
What type of fatty acids are solid at room temperature?
Saturated Fatty Acids
What type of fatty acids are liquid at room temperature?
Unsaturated Fatty Acids
What does hydrogenating a fatty acid turn into?
What word will appear in the ingredient list of a food that contains -trans fats?
How does the fatty acid content of a food change when moving from animal-based fats to plant-based fats?
-More saturated fatty acids in the animal based products
-More unsaturated fatty acids in plant based products
What are Essential Fatty Acids?
-Fatty acids that cannot be synthesized by the body
-Must be obtained in the diet
Food sources of omega-3 fatty acids
Food sources of omega-6 fatty acids
Do Americans consume enough of the two essential fatty acids (omega-3 and omega-6)?
-Americans consume plenty of omega-6
-Americans do not consume enough omega-3
Benefits of omega-3 fatty acid consumption
What is the best source of supplemental omega-3 fatty acids?
How does saturated fat affect blood lipid levels?
How does trans fat affect blood lipid levels?
How does Polyunsaturated fat affect blood lipid levels?
How does monounsaturated fat affect blood lipid levels?
What are the functions of fat in the body?
-Energy (during low intensity activity)
-Fat soluble vitamins transported around body by fats
-Helps us feel satisfied and takes longer to digest
-In the body:
-->Fats help cell membrane structure
-->Protection for internal organs
What are the functions of fats in food?
Gives food more flavor
Fat Digestion in the Mouth
Lingual lipase breaks triglycerides into FFAs (free fatty acids) and diglycerides
Fat Digestion in the Stomach
Gastric Lipase breaks triglycerides into FFA and diglycerides
Fat Digestion in the Liver
Produces bile that emulsifies (breaks into small molecules) fat
Fat Digestion in the Gallbladder
Stores bile and releases it into small intestine
Fat Digestion in the Pancreas
Makes pancreatic lipase and releases it into small intestine
**Pancreatic Lipase breaks it down into monoglycerides and FFAs
Describe the absorption of fat, assuming that we eat mostly long chain fatty acids, which cannot be transported in the blood.
Monoglycerides and FFA must be absorbed by being transferred into intestine wall by micelles
What transports most fats (long chain) after they are absorbed from the gastrointestinal (GI) tract?
Chylomicron lipoproteins transport monosaccharides to the liver
-Very low density Lipoprotein
-Transports triglycerides from the liver to tissues of the body
-Low Density Lipoprotein
-Transports cholesterol from liver tissues
-High Density Lipoprotein
-Transports extra cholesterol from tissues back to liver
What are the possible fates of a triglyceride (TG) when it is delivered to a cell?
They can either take a lipoprotein to the liver or body tissues
What are the recommendations for saturated fat intake?
What are the recommendations for trans fat intake?
As LOW as possible
What are the recommendations for cholesterol intake?
Which fats should we try to emphasize in the diet?
Cardiovascular Disease (CVD)
Dysfunction of the heart or blood vessels
4 forms of CVD
1.) Coronary Heart Disease (CHD) or Coronary Artery Disease (CAD)
4.) Peripheral artery disease
Coronary Heart Disease (CHD) or Coronary Artery Disease (CAD)
Coronary arteries supplying heart with blood are blocked
Cerebral artery supplying the brain is blocked
-High blood pressure
-Warning sign for developing heart disease/risk
-High sodium/less potassium
-Disease in which artery walls build up lipid deposits and scar tissue
-Impairing blood flow
-Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension
-Emphasizes: Fruits, Vegetables, Low-fat dairy, Foods containing potassium, calcium & magnesium
-Encourages sodium excretion in urine
-Lots of evidence that this works in salt-sensitive people
Risk factors from CVD development
-Type 2 diabetes
-Abnormal Blood lipids (high LDL, low HDL)
What can you do to decrease the risk of cardiovascular disease?
-Reduce Body Weight
-Physical activity (increases HDL)
-High omega-3 intake= High HDL levels
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