AP government court cases to know
Terms in this set (52)
Marbury V Madison
This case establishes the Supreme Court's power of Judicial Review
McCullough V Maryland
Established national supremacy; established implied powers; use of elastic clause; state unable to tax federal institution
Gibbons V Ogden
Regulating interstate commerce is a power reserved to the federal government
Plessy V Ferguson (1896)
Est. seperate but equal. Gave Supreme Court approval to Jim Crow laws.
Schenk v. U.S. (1919)
Oliver Wendell Holmes; clear and present danger test; limits on speech esp. during wartime.
Korematsu v. U.S.
Upheld as constitutional the interment of Americans with japanese descent during WWII
Brown V Board (1st) (1954)
Segregation in SCHOOLS is a violation of the 14th amendment
Mapp V Ohio (1961)
Established the exclusionary rule was applicable to the states, illustrated the process of selective incorporation through the Due Process of 14th amendment
Engle V Vitale (1962)
Mandatory prayer in schools is a violation of the establishment clause
Gideon V Wainright (1963)
If a defendant cannot afford an attorney the state must provide one (incorporation to state govt)
Griswold V Connecticut (1965)
Established that there is an implied right to privacy in the U.S. Constitution, and a Connecticut law criminalizing the use of contraceptives violated the rights of marital privacy
Miranda V Arizona
The accused must be notified of their rights before being questioned by the police
Lemon V Kurtzman
Est. 3 part test to determine if establishment clause is violated: nonsecular purpose, advances/inhibits religion, excessive entanglement with government
Roe V Wade (1973)
Abortion rights fall within the privacy implied in the Bill of Rights
U.S. V Nixon (1974)
"Executive privilege" is not unlimited "Even president is not above law"
Gregg V Georgia (1976)
Death penalty is not "cruel and unusual punishment" in cases of murder
Regents of California V Bakke (1978)
Race can not be the only factor in college admissions, quota system of UC was unconstitutional, upheld affirmative action
Texas v. Johnson (1989)
Struck down a law banning the burning og the American flag
Clinton V New York City (1998)
Banned presidential use of line item veto
Bush V Gore (2000)
Use of 14th amendment equal protection clause to stop the Florida recount in 2000 election
Grutter v. Bollinger (2003)
Race can be used as a factor for admission into University of Michigan, but quotas are illegal
Wesberry V Sanders (1963)
established "one person, one vote" on drawing congressional districts, triggered widespread redistricting that gave cities and suburbs greater representation
Buckley V Valeo (1976)
Candidates can use as much of their own money on their own campaigns. upheld federal limits on campaign contributions
Baker V Carr (1962)
judicial branch can rule on matters of legislative apportionment, used principle of "one person, one vote", ordered state legislative districts to be as equal as possible
New York Times V Sullivan (1964)
Held that statements about public figures are libelous only if made with malice and reckless regard for the truth
Miller V California (1973)
Est. that community standards be used in determining whether material is obscene
Palko v. Connecticut (1937)
Provided test for determining which parts of Bill of Rights should be applicable to the states - those which are fundamently necessary for liberty to exist.
Shaw V Reno (1993)
NO racial gerrymandering; race cannot be the sole or predominant factor in redrawing legislative boundaries; majority-minority districts.
U.S. v Lopez (1995)
Gun Free School Zones Act exceeded Congress' authority to regulate interstate commerce.
Weeks v. U.S. (1914)
Est. the Exclusionary rule at federal level; illegally obtained evidence cannot be used in court
Gitlow V. NY (1925)
Est. precedent for the doctrine of selective corporation, thus extending most of the requirements of Bill of Rights to the states
Near V. Minnesota (1931)
Held that 1st amendment protects newspapers from prior restraint
Brown V. Board 2nd (1955)
Ordered schools to desegregate "with all due and deliberate speed"
Roth V. US (1957)
Est. that "obscenity is not within the area of constitutionally protected speech or press"
Abington V. Schempp (1963)
Prohibited devotional bible reading in public schools by virtue of establishment clause
Planned Parenthood V. Casey (1992)
States can regulate abortion, but not with regulations that impose "undue burden" upon women; did not overturn Roe, but gave states more leeway
Zelman V. Simmons-Harris (2002)
Public money can be used to send disadvantaged children to religious schools in tuition voucher programs
Ashcroft V. ACLU (2002)
Struck down a federal band on virtual children porn
Lawrence V. Texas
Using right of privacy, struck down Texas law banning sodomy
Gratz V. Bollinger (2003)
Struck down use of "bonus points" for race in undergrad admissions to University of Michigan
Reynolds V. U.S.
banned polygamy, religious practices cannot make an act legal that would otherwise be illegal
Oregon V. Smith
Banned use of illegal drugs in religious ceremonies, government can act when religious practices violate criminal laws
Schenk v. U.S.
Free speech could be limited when it presents a "clear and present danger"
Tinker V. Des Moines Independent School District
Protected some forms of symbolic speech, held that students do not "shed their constitutional right of freedom of speech at school"
Barron v. Baltimore
Bill of rights cannot be applied to the states
Dred Scott V. Sandford
African Americans were not citizens and therefore could not petition the SuCo
Hamdan v. Rumsfeld
Court ruled that military commissions were not authorized by federal law because of the lack of procedural rights for the defendants, could not hold detainees without due process and without the protection of the Geneva Accords; had to be tried in federal court
District of Columbia V. Heller
Ruled that the D.C. gun regulation rule was unconstitutional. Supreme Court stated that individuals have the right to own a gun as a means of self-defense based on the second amendment.
Citizens United v. Federal Election Commission (F.E.C.)
Under the First Amendment corporate funding of independent political broadcasts in candidate elections cannot be limited
Burwell v. Hobby Lobby
The Religious Freedom Restoration Act of 1993 allow a for-profit company to deny its employees health coverage of contraception to which the employees would otherwise be entitled based on the religious objections of the company's owners bc there is a less restrictive means of furthering the government's interests.
Obergefell v. Hodges
the court ruled that the Fourteenth Amendment requires a State to license a marriage between two people of the same sex and to recognize a marriage between two people of the same sex when their marriage was lawfully licensed and performed out-of-State (overturned Defense of Marriage Act)
INS V. Chadha
The legislative veto violates separation of powers because it deprives the president of his use of the veto.