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Anatomy and Physiology Study Guide Chapter 16&17
Terms in this set (86)
Endocrine glands all produce which class of molecules?
What determines whether or not a cell is a target cell of a hormone?
Cells with the specific receptor for a specific hormone
Endocrine cells are derived from cells of which primary class of tissue?
epithelium with connective tissue framework
List four glands that are entirely endocrine in function. List two glands that are only partially endocrine in function.
(1) The pituitary gland
(2) The pineal gland
(3) The thyroid gland
(4) The parathyroid glands
(5) The adrenal glands
List two types of stimuli that can trigger the release of hormones.
Initiated by one of three types of stimulation:
What are the two general categories of hormones? (leave out the biogenic amines as a separate category, they are amino acids so let's lump them with the protein hormones)
steroid or protein hormones
Which class of hormones is lipid soluble? Which class is water soluble?
lipid soluble- steroid
water soluble- protein
What is the difference between the way that protein hormones and steroid hormones are transported in the blood? Which organ produces the carrier molecules of steroid hormones?
protein hormones travel through the blood to all of the cells of the body, where they interact with specific receptor on the surfaces of their target cells; steroid hormones are transported through the blood attached to carrier proteins; gonads
Which class of hormones is able cross the cell membrane? Which class of hormones is not able to cross the cell membrane? Why can one and not the other?
steroid hormones can cross but protein hormones cannot. because of their lipid structure and their cholesteral backbone, steroid hormones can cross. Non-steroid hormones rely on secondary messenger signaling molecules because they are unable to penetrate the cell membrane
Where are the receptor sites for steroid hormones found?
Steroid hormone receptors are found in the nucleus, cytosol, and also on the plasma membrane of target cells
Where are the receptor sites for protein hormones found?
eceptors for peptide hormones are located on the plasma membrane because they have bound to a receptor protein located on the plasma membrane
What effect does parathyroid hormone have on blood calcium levels?
When the calcium in our blood goes too low, the parathyroid glands make more PTH. Increased PTH causes the body to put more calcium into the blood. Increased PTH causes the bones to release their calcium into the blood.
What effect does calcitonin have on blood calcium levels? Which gland produces calcitonin?
Calcitonin decreases blood calcium levels by inhibiting osteoclasts, stimulating osteoblasts, and stimulating calcium excretion by the kidney; is produced and released by the C-cells of the thyroid gland
Which gland produces all of the releasing hormones?
Which gland is considered to be the master control gland of the endocrine system?
Where do the releasing hormones produced by the hypothalamus have their effect?
anterior pituitary hormones
What are the two distinct parts of the pituitary gland?
anterior and posterior
What is the infundibulum?
is the connection between the hypothalamus and the posterior pituitary
Which part of the pituitary gland connects to the hypothalamus via neurons in the infundibulum?
Which part of the pituitary gland connects to the hypothalamus via capillaries in the infundibulum?
Which hormone requires iodine as part of its chemical structure?
What is the overall effect of thyroid hormone on metabolism?
thyroid hormone stimulates basal metabolic rate
Where are the adrenal glands located?
Anchored on superior surface of each kidney
Which hormone is produced in the adrenal medulla?
epinephrine and norepinephrine
How many different classes of hormones are produced in the adrenal cortex?
3; mineralocorticoids, glucocorticoids, and androgens
What are the two types of endocrine cells in the pancreas? Which one produces insulin? Which one produces glucagon?
(a) Alpha cells which secrete glucagon
(b) Beta cells which secrete insulin
Match the hormones with the gland that releases them.
What is a sensory stimulus?
a change in sensory information
What is sensation? What is necessary for sensation to occur?
The conscious awareness of sensory information; Sensation can only occur if the stimulus reaches the cerebral cortex
What is a transducer? Why are receptors considered to be transducers? What types of energy can receptors receive? What type of energy do they convert their stimuli into?
Receptors (transducers) change one form of energy into a different form; light, sound, mechanical; Energy is transduced to electrical energy that is conducted along a sensory neuron
What is the difference between a small receptive field and a broad receptive field?
If the field is small, the precise location can be determined easily
If the field is broad, only the general region is detected
What is the difference between a tonic receptor and a phasic receptor?
tonic- Receptors will respond continuously to the stimuli at a constant rate and the receptor sensitivity stays the same over time
phasic- Receptors detect a new stimulus or a change in the stimulus and the receptor sensitivity decreases over time
What are the two types of general sense receptors? Where are each located?
somatic (skin, joints, muscles, tendons) and visceral (inner organs of the body)
Where are the special sense receptors located?
What are the five special senses?
(a) Gustation (taste)
(b) Olfaction (smell)
(c) Vision (sight)
(d) hearing (audition)
(e) Equilibrium (balance and acceleration)
What do chemoreceptors respond to? What do thermoreceptors respond to?
What do photoreceptors respond to? What do mechanoreceptors respond to? What do baroreceptors respond to? What do nociceptors respond to?
changes in light intensity, color, movement; touch, pressure, vibration, and stretch; pressure; pain or trauma
Which type of receptors are tactile receptors?
What is referred pain?
Sensory nerve signals from certain viscera, but not perceived by the brain as originating from that organ
What is olfaction? Which type of receptor is involved in olfaction?
sense of smell; chemoreceptor
Where is the olfactory epithelium found?
Lines the superior region of the nasal cavity
How often are the olfactory receptor cells replaced?
every 40 to 60 days
Where are the olfactory hairs found? What do the olfactory hairs contain?
(a) Neurons that have olfactory hairs projecting from their dendrites
(b) The olfactory hairs contain receptor sites for each specific molecule in the environment
The processes of the olfactory receptor cells combine to form which cranial nerve?
What brain structures does the sense of olfaction travel to?
Travel to the olfactory cortex (in the temporal lobe), the hypothalamus, and the amygdala
Which part of the cerebral cortex is designated for the perception and awareness of smell? Where is the olfactory cortex located?
What is the significance of the olfactory nerves traveling to the amygdala? What key brain structure does olfaction bypass? Is it the only sense to bypass the thalamus?
Why does deep breathing help in detecting smell? How many odor molecules are necessary to detect a smell?
What does it mean that adaptation to smells occurs rapidly?
What is gustation? What type of receptor is involved in gustation?
Which cells contain the taste receptors?
Where are the gustatory cells located?
What is the life span of a gustatory cell?
What are the five basic taste sensations?
Which cranial nerves convey the taste sensation to the brain?
Why does the sensation of taste go first to the medulla?
Does the sense of taste get filtered by the thalamus?
Which part of the cerebral cortex is designated for the perception and awareness of taste?
Which type of receptor is involved in vision?
What is the conjunctiva? Why does the conjunctiva not cover the cornea?
What is the protective enzyme found in tears?
Which gland produces the tears? Where is the lacrimal gland located?
How many cranial nerves serve the eye? Which one carries the image from the retina to the brain?
What is the term for the white of the eye?
How many cavities does the eye have? What separates the two cavities?
What is the cornea?
What is the portion of the eye that has color?
What is the black opening at the center of the iris? What does the pupil control?
What is the retina? How many layers does the retina have?
What is the function of the pigmented layer of the retina?
What is the function of the neural layer of the retina?
What are the two types of photoreceptor cells in the neural layer of the retina?
What is the function of the lens?
What is the name of the muscles that alter the shape of the lens?
What are the two cavities of the eye?
What is the fluid that fills the posterior cavity? What is the fluid that fills the anterior chamber? Which one is very thick and gelatinous?
Which of the two photoreceptors is used in dim lighting? Can rods distinguish color? Do rods provide a sharp image? What do rods perceive well?
Are there more rods or more cones in the retina?
What do cones perceive well? How many types of cones are there? Why do we need 3 types of cones?
What happens to the photopigments in the photoreceptors of the retina when they are struck by light?
What are the two components of the photopigments? What is the protein in the photopigment? Which vitamin is the retinal formed from?
What are the three sections of the ear?
What is the tympanic membrane? Which two sections of the ear does it divide?
What does the Eustachian tube connect? What is its function?
What are the three auditory ossicles of the middle ear?
Which structure of the inner ear contains the hair cells?
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