Practice Exam History 101 (History of Western Civilization) - Northern Virginia Community College

What was the most prominent building in a Sumerian (Mesopotamian) City
Click the card to flip 👆
1 / 118
Terms in this set (118)
who was the first israelite kingsaulwhich israelite king captured jerusalem and made it his capitaldavidwhich israelite king was repsonsible for the construction of the templesolomonafter solomons death, his kingdom was divided into 2 parts with the kingdom of Israel now composed of the 10 northern tribes and southern half now called _________ composed of 2 tribesjudahthe Babylonians developed a precise system of mathematics notation based on the number60which of the following is not true of the religion of the persiansit was strictly monotheistic with ahura mazda as the one true godthe ______ created a civilization on the island of crete that thrived between 2200 and 1400 bceminoansthe _____- were an Indo-European people who developed a civilization in the pelopennesemyceneas_____ was the greek poet credited with composing the theogony and the works and dayshesiodthe archaic greeks adapted the writing of the _________- to their own language sometime around 800 bcephoenicians_________ was most highly valued personal quality among the GreeksAretethe olympic games were held in Greece every four years at Olympus in a sanctuary dedicated to the gozueswhich of the following statements is not true about the spartan helotshelots are owned by individual spartan citizensspartan men lived in the barracks until the age of30_____, who was a native of the island of Samos, taught that the world could be explained through numerical relationshipspythagorasthe King of Persia at the beginning of the Persian Wars wasDarius IAt the Battle of ________ in 490 BCE, the Athenian army won an unexpected victory over the numerically superior Persian ArmyMarathonFollowing the Persian Wars, Athens exerted its newfound dominance by controlling the ____________Delian Leaguewhich of the following is true of the Delian Leagueit was formed to protect the Greeks from any future invasion by the Persians_____became Classical Athen's dominant politician by spearheading reforms to democratize its judicial system and provide pay for many public officespericles_______ was the practice of temporarily banishing an Athenian citizen who posed a potential threat to become a tyrantostracism_____ innovated philsopophy by shifting its focus to moral and ethical behaviorSocratesPericles's strategy for winning the peloponnesian war depended onusing atheian naval power and wealth to win a war of attritionOur best account of the peloponnesian war comes from the writings ofthucydideswhich of the following is not a reform of solon in 594 BCEredistributed the landwhich of the following is not a part of the Athenian government under Cleisthenescouncil of 400Cleisthenes' democratic reforms of 508 BC were based ongeographywhich of the following was not a part of Cleisthenes' democratic reformsdiminished the role of the assemblywhich of the following was not one of Alexander the Great's successor kingdomsthe chaldean empireHistorians have traditionally characterized civilization as which of the followingA way of life based on agriculture and tradeWhat provides historians with their best evidence that hierarchy emerged in Paleolithic timesThe inclusion of valuables, weapons, and tools in some burial sitesWhat led to what historians define as the Neolithic RevolutionThe emergence of the "farming package" of agriculture and animal domesticationWhy did the first cities and thus the first civilization emerge in SumerBecause Sumerians figured out how to use the Tigris and Euphrates Rivers for irrigationMesopotamian religious beliefs or practices during the Bronze Age were characterized by which of the followingThe worship of many gods who were believed to control different aspects of human lifeWhy was the technology of writing originally developed in SumerTo do accountingWhat resource became a new source of conflict after 4000 B.C.E.MetalsWhat factor led directly to the establishment of Mesopotamian empiresA desire to establish and extend control over the trade in metalsWhat was the Assyrians' main export to AnatoliaTextilesThe Old Kingdom in Egypt was characterized politically by which of the followingA powerful monarch who ruled over a centralized state that featured just a few large citiesWhat was Egypt's most important economic resourceAgricultureWhat was the pictographic script used by ancient Egyptians to write formal and official textsHieroglyphicThe power and success of the Egyptian king depended onhis ability to maintain military superiority not only over other African states but also over the increasingly powerful states of the eastern Mediterranean.Why is there debate about the historical significance of the Great SphinxAlthough the Sphinx eventually came to be regarded as a divinity, we do not know precisely when or why it was built in the first place.Who were the HyksosForeigners who became Egypt's rulers during the late Middle KingdomWhich of the following civilizations emerged on the island of Crete around 2200 B.C.E.MinoanWhat archaeological clue has led some scholars to conclude that early Minoan society was relatively peaceful?The absence of walls and other defensive measuresWhich of the following best describes the Mediterranean polyculture developed on Minoan Crete?An agricultural system in which farmers cultivated diverse crops that required intense work at different seasonsArchaeological findings suggest that a redistributive economic system existed in which of the following culturesMinoan, Mesopotamian, and MycenaeanAfter the Mycenaeans took control of Crete, the palace administration at Knossos began writing official documents in which of the following scriptsLinear BWhich of the following empires was the first to emerge at the close of the Dark Age in the ancient Near EastNeo-AssyrianNeo-Assyrian kings demonstrated their skill, strength, and courage byhunting lions.Who founded the Persian Empire?Darius IWhat was the basis of the Israelite kingdom's wealthInternational tradeAccording to the Hebrew scripture, Yahweh revealed himself on Mount Sinai toMosesApproximately when did the Greek Dark Age occur1000 to 750 B.C.E.What is one of the most startling indications of the severity of life in the Greek Dark Age?Greeks lost their knowledge of writing.The loss of the trade in tin as a result of the period of violence led Greeks to do which of the following?Mine and smelt iron oreHow was a new social elite established in Greece after the Mycenaean collapse?Competitive individual excellence produced a new social elite.In Works and Days, how does Hesiod describe Zeus?As the source of justice in human affairsHow were political rights generally distributed in Greek city-states?Male citizens of Greek city-states enjoyed rough legal and political equality regardless of their wealth.During the Archaic Age, how many city-states were there in Greece?HundredsA core belief of Greek religion was thata multiplicity of anthropomorphic deities under one supreme godWhat limited the number of slaves working in agriculture in Archaic Greece?The system of agriculture in Greece made owning large numbers of slaves impractical.What was the status of Greek women with regard to citizenship?Free women could be citizens, but they could not vote or participate in politics.Spartan society depended on the helots, who wereGreek slaves taken captive in regions conquered by the Spartans.Spartan women were best known fortheir high degree of personal freedom.Which of the following were Athenian democratic reformers?Solon and CleisthenesWhat important reorganization of society did Solon undertake in Athens?He made the top-ranking social division dependent solely on wealth, not birth.Pythagoras, an Ionian philosopher living in the city-state of Croton, taught thatnumerical relationships explained the world.. In 507 B.C.E., after Athenian ambassadors agreed to Persia's standard requirement for an alliance, how did Persia and Athens understand their agreement?Persia believed that Athens had submitted to Persian supremacy, but the Athenian assembly rejected submission to Persia without informing the Persians.In 483 B.C.E. Themistocles convinced the Athenian assembly toinvest the proceeds from a rich silver strike in doubling the size of the navy.How did the Greek city-states respond to the threat of the Persian invasion?Thirty-one Greek city-states formed an alliance led by Sparta to fight the Persians and defend their political freedom.In which battle in 480 B.C.E. did three hundred Spartans and a few hundred other troops hold back an enormous Persian army?The battle of ThermopylaeAfter the battle of Thermopylae in 480 B.C.E., the Persian armyburned AthensWhich statement best describes the political development of the Delian League?It began as a democratic union led by Athens but soon resembled an Athenian empire.How did the Delian League affect Greek democracy?It strengthened democracy within Athens, as poor Athenians sought political power, while weakening the democracy of the league itselfWho led the push for a more radical Athenian democracy?Male elites seeking to increase their own popular influenceHow did some Athenian social elites criticize democratic governance?They claimed that the poor were uneducated and morally inferior.Golden Age sculpture was characterized bydisplays of anatomically realistic but perfect-looking bodies.Greeks publicly maintained religious tradition byoffering sacrifices.What did Athenian inheritance laws require in order to keep property in the possession of male heirs?That an heiress marry the closest male relative of her fatherWhat did the Sophist Protagoras argue?That truth is subjectiveWhich of the following tragedies concerns the conflict between sacred moral tradition and obedience to the rules of the state?Antigone by SophoclesWhen did the Peloponnesian War take place?431-404 B.C.E.why did Pericles believe that Athens would win the Peloponnesian WarBecause Athenian fortifications would protect the cityWhy did Athens attack and conquer MelosThe Melians refused to renounce their allegiance to Sparta.Who were the Thirty Tyrants?The antidemocratic Athenians installed by the Spartans to rule Athens after the Peloponnesian WarWhich of the following was used to settle strife and diminish tensions in Athens after the Peloponnesian War?The Athenian assembly enacted the first known amnesty in Western historyAfter the Peloponnesian War, the Greek city-statesgradually regained their economic and political stabilityWhich of the following is true about the trial and execution of Socrates?Many Athenians subsequently came to regret his punishment as a tragic mistake.For Plato, the Forms representedthe abstract, invariable, and ultimate realities of ethical qualities.Who established the Lyceum school?AristotleWhat was the most important aspect of Athenian military power in the half century after the Peloponnesian War?The strength of the Athenian navyMacedonian society was marked by which of the followingSocial equality among the elite and the monarchyWhich of the following battles marked the end of the Greek city-states' ability to act independently in international politics?The battle of Chaeronea in 338 B.C.E.How did Alexander discourage disloyalty following the rebellion of Thebes?He destroyed the city as an example.Which of the following is true of Alexander the Great's rule in Persia?He emphasized continuity, keeping the existing governing units intact.After his soldiers mutinied in India and Alexander was forced to return home, he spent the remainder of his lifeplanning further conquests and demanding the honors of a god.What was the most significant characteristic of the Hellenistic Age?The mixing of Near Eastern and Greek cultural traditionsWhich of the following is true of the Hellenistic kingdoms?They recruited mostly Greeks and Macedonians for high-level administrative posts.In the Hellenistic kingdoms, slaveryexpanded as the kingdoms grew.Which of the following is true of Hellenistic queens?They held and exercised power comparable to kingsPhilanthropic endeavors during the Hellenistic period includedthe first public schools in the Greek world.Why did a Roman army invade and conquer Egypt in 30 B.C.E.?Queen Cleopatra had supported the losing side in a Roman civil war.Which philosophy taught that life was controlled by fate but that people should still strive for good?StoicismWhy was the Hellenistic period considered to be the golden age of ancient science?Scientific innovation flourished as a result of royal support and the exchange of ideas.What was a ruler cult?A cult that worshipped a Hellenistic king as a savior godThe revolt led by Judah the Maccabee was provoked bythe Seleucid king outlawing Judaism and converting the Jewish temple in Jerusalem into a Greek temple.