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Terms in this set (58)
1. Sensory information is processed and relayed to the cerebrum by the
*D) thalamus. .
2. The tracts that connect the cerebellum to the brain stem are located in the
3. Autonomic centers that control blood pressure, heart rate, and digestion are located in the
*A) medulla oblongata.
4. The ________ provides the principal link between the nervous and endocrine systems.
5. Which of the following is not a function of cerebrospinal fluid?
D) provides ATP for impulse transmission
6. Absorption at the arachnoid granulations returns CSF to the
C) venous circulation.
7. Which of the following is a property of the blood-brain barrier?
A) The capillary endothelial cells are interconnected by tight junctions.
B) It is generally permeable to lipid-soluble compounds.
C) Astrocytes surround the CNS capillaries.
D) It is absent in portions of the hypothalamus.
*E) all of the above
8. Overseeing the postural muscles of the body and making rapid adjustments to maintain balance and equilibrium are functions of the
9. Higher-order functions
D) all of the above
10. Which of the following help to protect the brain?
A) the blood-brain barrier
B) the bones of the skull
C) the cranial meninges
D) the CSF
*E) all of the above
11. Ependymal cells work to
A) surround the capillaries of the choroid plexus.
B) secrete CSF into the ventricles.
C) remove waste products from CSF.
*D) all of the above
E) B and C only
12. ________ centers receive information from many association areas and direct extremely complex motor activities such as speech.
13. Damage to the corpora quadrigemina would interfere with
C) visual and auditory reflex movements of the head and neck.
14. A person with a damaged visual association area may be
D) able to see letters but unable to associate them into words.
15. Excitation of neurons in the basal nuclei would lead to
A) increased muscle tone.
16. After suffering a blow to the back of the head, Phil loses his vision. The blow probably caused damage to the
E) occipital lobe.
17. The general senses
A) involve receptors that are relatively simple in structure.
18. Which of the following can contribute to receptor specificity?
A) the structure of the receptor cell
B) characteristics of the receptor cell membrane
C) accessory cells that function with the receptor
D) accessory structures and tissues that shield the receptors from other stimuli
*E) any of the above
19. Central adaptation refers to
C) inhibition of nuclei located along a sensory pathway.
20. Endorphins can reduce perception of sensations initiated by
21. Which of the following kinds of information do fine-touch and light-pressure mechanoreceptors provide?
A) location of the stimulus.
B) shape of the stimulus.
C) texture of the stimulus.
D) movement of the stimulus.
*E) all of the above
22. We can localize sensations that originate in different areas of the body because
B) sensory neurons from specific body regions project to specific cortical regions.
23. The area of the motor cortex that is devoted to a particular region of the body is proportional to the
C) number of motor units in that region.
24. In order for a sensation to become a perception,
A) it must received by the somatosensory cortex.
25. Pain is to ________ as cold is to ________.
A) nociceptors; thermoreceptors
26. Your uncle was just diagnosed with a heart attack. One of his major symptoms is left arm pain. You are not surprised because you are familiar with the phenomenon of
A) referred pain.
27. The cerebellum relies on information from
A) the eyes.
B) the inner ear as movements are under way.
C) proprioceptive sensations.
D) motor commands from upper motor neurons.
*E) all of the above.
28. The cerebellum
A) functions to maintain proper posture and equilibrium.
B) receives input from the motor cortex and basal ganglia.
C) compares intended movement to actual movement.
D) if damaged leads to uncoordinated and jerky movements.
*E) has all these characteristics.
29. Bladder fullness is to ________ as blood pH is to ________.
B) baroreceptors; chemoreceptors
30. Identify the structure labeled "5."
A) ventral root
31. What occurs in this neural pathway at label "3"?
32. Identify the type of information that travels along the structure labeled "4."
A) motor commands to skeletal muscles
33. Preganglionic neurons of the autonomic nervous system are located in
A) the brain.
B) the lateral gray horns of the spinal cord.
C) the posterior gray horns of the spinal cord.
*D) both A and B
E) both A and C
34. Specialized ganglionic sympathetic neurons that release hormones into the bloodstream are found within the
E) suprarenal glands.
35. Each of the following effects is associated with the action of postganglionic sympathetic fibers, except
C) decreased heart rate.
36. Almost 75 percent of all parasympathetic outflow travels along the
C) vagus nerves.
37. Clusters of ganglionic sympathetic neurons that innervate organs in the abdominopelvic region are called ________ ganglia.
38. Postganglionic sympathetic axons release the neurotransmitter ________ at their effector junctions.
B) nitric oxide
D) either A or C
*E) A, B, or C
39. Which of the following is essential for memory consolidation?
40. Based on stimulation studies, the "headquarters" of the reticular activating system appears to be based in the
41. Autonomic efferents
E) conduct impulses to smooth and cardiac muscles and glands.
42. Postganglionic fibers release neurotransmitter on peripheral effectors
B) at pearl-like swellings called varicosities.
43. Which of the following statements concerning the parasympathetic division of the autonomic nervous system is false?
C) Preganglionic fibers are relatively short and postganglionic fibers are relatively long.
44. A person is confronted by a dangerous dog. His heart begins to race and beat strongly, his pupils dilate, and his hairs stand up. These signs are the result of
A) sympathetic activation.
B) increased levels of epinephrine in the blood.
C) increased activity of autonomic centers in the hypothalamus.
*D) A, B, and C
45. Olfactory glands
D) coat the olfactory epithelium with a pigmented mucus.
46. All of the following are true of olfactory pathways, except
A) they project first to the mamillary bodies and then to the thalamus.
47. Some neural tissues retain stem cells and thus the capacity to divide and replace lost neurons. Which of these special senses can replace its damaged neural receptors?
48. The structure that supports the organ of Corti is the
B) basilar membrane.
49. Movement of the endolymph in the semicircular canals
C) signals rotational movements.
50. Perception of gravity and linear acceleration depends on
C) the force exerted by otoliths on hair cells of the maculae.
51. The following is a list of the steps that occur in the production of an auditory sensation.
1. The pressure wave distorts the basilar membrane on its way to the round window.
2. Movement of the tympanic membrane causes displacement of the malleus.
3. Displacement of the stereocilia stimulates sensory neurons of the cochlear nerve.
4. Movement of the malleus causes movement of the incus and stapes.
5. Distortion of the basilar membrane forces the hair cells of the organ of Corti toward or away from the tectorial membrane.
6. Movement of the oval window establishes pressure waves in the perilymph of the vestibular duct.
The proper sequence for these steps is
D) 2, 4, 6, 1, 5, 3.
52. Which of the following descriptions best matches the term stereocilia?
C) bending these produces receptor potential in hair cells
53. Taste receptors are distributed in which of the following places?
A) portions of the larynx
B) surface of the tongue
C) portions of the pharynx
*D) all of the above
54. Olfactory information is first received by which part of the brain?
55. Which of these anatomical sequences is correct?
C) tympanum:malleus:incus:stapes:oval window:round window
56. The corpus callosum is composed of
D) commissural fibers.
57. Damage to the premotor cortex of the frontal lobe would interfere with the ability to
D) play the piano.
58. Stimulation of a neuron that terminates in the superior region of the left postcentral gyrus would produce
A) a sensation in the right leg.
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