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Bio 122 Ecology
Terms in this set (71)
Ecology what is Ecology?
The study of how organisms interact with their environment
What is the central goal?
Understand distribution and abundance of organisms
What are the four main levels of Ecology?
Organisms, Populations, Communities, Ecosystems
What is the focus in ecological organisms?
Explore morphological, physiological, and behavioral adaptions that allow individual organisms to live successfully in a particular area
What is the population in ecology?
A group of individuals of the same species that live in the same area at the same time
What is the focus in population ecology?
How population numbers change over time
What is a community?
Species that interact with one another within a particular area
What is the focus in community ecology?
Nature and consequence on interactions among species in a community
What is an ecosystem?
All organisms, = biotic, in a particular region, along with non living, or abiotic, components
What is the focus of ecosystem ecology?
How nutrients and energy move between organisms and surrounding atmosphere, soil, or water
What is a biome?
Type of terrestrial ecosystem that is unique to a given region, has distinct type of vegetation
How are biomes categorized?
By annual precipitation and temperature
Where are tropical wet forests or rain forests found?
What are some characteristics of a subtropical desert?
High average annual temperatures and moderate variation in temperature, Very low precipitation
What are some adaptions of species in subtropical deserts?
Grow at low-rate year round, Dormancy and growing rapidly in response to any rainfall
What are some characteristics of temperate region?
Moderate temperatures relative to the tropics and polar-regions, Summers are typically long and warm, winters short and cold
What are some characteristics of temperate grassland (prairies or steppes)?
Temperatures moderate and precipitation low, Moderate annual temperature variation dictates well-defined growing season
What is a temperate forest?
Experiences warm summers and winter temperatures below freezing
Characteristics of temperate forest?
Precipitation moderately high and relatively constant throughout the year, May be dominated by deciduous species
Where are boreal forests located?
Across northern Canada and Alaska (but below the tundra), Russia, Northern Europe
Characteristics of boreal forests?
Very cold winters
What are boreal forests dominated by?
short, cool summers, and extraordinarily high annual variation in temperature, Precipitation similar to that in temperature grasslands, Highly cold tolerant conifers (e.g. spruce, pine, fir, and larch)
What are some characteristics of Arctic tundra?
Very low temperatures and high annual temperature variation,Very low annual precipitation, Treeless - small woody shrubs
What are places with standing freshwater classified as?
Lakes, Ponds, or Wetlands
Wetlands have emergent vegetation
plants that grow above the surface of the water
What are the three types of zones in aquatic systems?
Littoral zone - shallow water along shore, where flowing plants are rooted, Limnetic zone - open water with light photosynthesis, Benthic zone - bottom of lakes or ponds. Detritivores common, Plus photic and aphotic zones
What are some characteristics of marshes?
Lack trees, usually connected to lake or stream system. Slow and steady water flow
What are some characteristics of swamps?
Similar to marshes but dominated by trees and shrubs. Very productive
What are some characteristics of bogs?
water flow is low or absent. Most water is stagnant. Very unproductive
What are streams/rivers?
Bodies of water that move constantly in one direction
What is an estuary?
The environment that forms where a stream meets the ocean
What are the ways of distribution of individuals?
Uniform -e.g. Plants in competition, Random, Clumped - e.g. Limited habitat
What is Demography?
Study of factors such as: birth rates, death rates, immigration and emigration rates
What do age pyramids reveal?
They reveal relatively recent history of births and deaths - e.g. Baby boom
What do survivorship curves show?
Population pattern of deaths- what is the chance of dying at a given age
What is density dependent?
Change in birth or death rates in response to population density
What is a species life history?
How efforts (ENERGY) are divided among growth, dispersal, and reproduction (basically living) over time
What are population dynamics?
Changes in a population through time
What are population cycles?
Regular fluctuations in size
What does a biological community consist of?
Interacting species usually living with in a defined area
What are the 5 species interactions?
Competition, Predation/parasitism, Commensalism, Mutualism, (amensalism)
What are the competitor organisms that use the same limited resources?
Intraspecific (within species), Interspecific (Between/among Species)
What is competition?
Seeking and using scarce resources
What are some effects of competition?
Reduce species abundance, Restrict species range
What is the competitive exclusion principle?
It is not possible for sympatric (organisms that live in the same place) species with the same niche to coexist
What is fundamental niche?
The resources used or conditions tolerated in the absence of competitors
What is realized niche?
The resources used or conditions tolerated when competition does occur
What is the consumption of plant tissues by herbivores?
What is the consumption of small amounts of tissues from another organism or host by a parasite?
What is the killing and consumption of most or all of another by a predator?
What defenses are always present?
What are defenses only produced when prey is threatened?
Inducible Defenses - e.g. thickness of mussel shell, high production of tanins in Oaks
How do prey defend themselves? Lots of ways:.
Saddleback caterpillars have poisonous spines. Hickory horned devil have harmless spines to mimic a dangerous species, Bombardier beetle - glandular defense system w/ warning color (apopsomatic)
What is the close resemblance of one species to another species or object?
2 types of mimicry
Batesian mimicry - mimic harmless, model harmful, Mullerian mimicry- both species harmful
when one partner benefits and the other is unaffected, Egrets and cows or buffalo, Clown fish, anemones, Bromiliads, breeding frogs
What is the development of communities after disturbance?
What are organisms and the physical environment in a particular area called?
What does the combination of heat, moisture, and sunlight in a large region create?
Earths spin and solar radiation is driven by?
What is driven primarily by prevailing winds?
What are trophic levels in an ecosystem?
Producers, primary consumers (herbivores), secondary consumers (carnivores), decomposers
Food chain and food web
chain is a simple picture of energy flow, web is a more complicated picture of energy flow. Shows more links amongst the set of species (producers, consumers, and decomposers) in an ecosystem
What are species that eat the dead remains of organisms?
What connects the trophic levels and shows how energy moves from one trophic level to another?
What is usually embedded in a food chain?
How many levels do food chains and food webs have?
When productivity is the greatest at the first (bottom) trophic level and declines at higher levels. This is called?
Pyramid of productivity
What limits the rate at which nutrients move through an ecosystem?
Decomposition of Demetrius
Altering the phosphorus cycle causes _____ of aquatic systems?
Eutrophication (nutrient rich water), (plus- Oligotrophic- nutrient poor water), Acid Precipitation also negative effects in aquatic ecosystems
Where is the ozone hole located?