NA 6

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which type of nucleic acid is required as a template for PCR?
DNA
explain what happens during each of the three phases of PCR
denaturation
annealing- allows the primers to get where they need to go
elongation- adding to the strand
why is Taq polymerase still active 94 degrees?
it is from an environment with a very high temperature
why is Sanger sequencing called "sequencing by chain termination"?
ddNTPs inhibit chain elongation by DNA polymerase

bind and terminate the chain
despite being slower than other sequencing technologies, Sanger sequencing is still used today for what purpose?
to sequence a single gene of an organism
what is the key structural difference between a dNTP and ddNTP? how is that difference able to permanently stop the sequencing reaction?
ddNTPS do not have an OH group so this terminates chain elongation
why is Illumina sequencing called "sequencing by reversible terminators"?
the fluorescent labels and the reversible terminators are added

they are then removed and the terminators are unblocked and reverted back to normal nucleotides
explain how Oxford Nanopore sequencing works. Does DNA synthesis occur?
DNA synthesis does not work

uses electric current and the current changes depending on what nucleotide is passed through it
which two sequencing technologies use fluorescently labeled ddNTPs?
Sanger and Illumina
which sequencing technology does not require expensive enzymes or a camera?
nanopore
if you wanted to sequence the whole genome for multiple individuals with a low error rate which would you use?
Illumina