91 terms

test 2

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American mothers and fathers work longer hours than parents in other countries
true
3 policies that can help parents at the work place
-parental leave at the birth or adoption of a child
-leave when children & family are sick or have educational needs
-childcare
what are the benefits of parental leave at the birth or adoption of a child
enabling parents to help babies settle into regular sleeping, waking, & eating schedules
childhood care is required by about ______% of children of employed mothers
90%
economic and social changes since the 1970s that have created diversity in family work patterns
-increasing number of mothers entering the workforce, especially mothers of children under 6
-marked increase in the percentage of children living in single parent homes
-nature of work has changed in this country
parents refer to success at work as
having time to get work done and being able to focus on their work without interruptions
-completing a task before another one is assigned
parents who felt positive spillover from work to home
-were married
-had jobs that demanded more days per week
-had more supportive supervisors and coworkers
parents who were more likely to experience negative spillover from work to home
-put a higher priority on work than family
-had demanding jobs that were difficult to complete
-more likely to be managers or professionals with large responsibilities
families with marked stress are
the sandwich generation
parents feel good about their parenting when they spend time
-eating meals
-doing homework
-playing with their children
what are the strategies mothers use to manage the demands of their time
-staggering obligations
-expand resources to meet demands
-eliminate obligations that are not essential at the time
children in double jeopardy
experience risk factors for development at home and at day care had higher levels of behavioral problems and lower levels of prosocial behaviors
lack of supervision and monitoring in early adolescence is related to increase use of
-alcohol
-cigarettes
-marijuana
4 patterns of working and parenting
-equal shifters
-60/40 couples
-75/25
-alternating shifters
2-4% of children in the US are thought to be adopted
true
about 1/2 of the children adopted in the US are adopted by biological relatives and other kin such as step parents
true
children are most frequently adopted by which country
china
which adults were previously excluded from adoption
older, single, gay, lesbian, disabled, poor
children adopted by single parents do as well as those adopted by young couples
true
single people tend to adopt more difficult children
true
adoptive and birth parents are given greater access to information about and more contact with each other
true
in some cases the birth mother selects the adopting parents, this would be an example of
open adoption
birth mothers show better adjustments to adoption...
after placement than birth mothers who do not maintain contact
children adopted by parents of different racial/ ethnic backgrounds
are psychologically well adjusted without behavioral or emotional problems
adoptees were grateful for opportunities such as
-good education
-becoming open with others
-increased abilities to relate to many different kinds of people
some challenges of adoptees parents of different racial/ ethnic backgrounds
feeling alone and distant from others because they did not look like them
children adopted by parents of different racial/ ethnic backgrounds
want opportunities to blend and feel like everyone else
what is the function of the Hague convention on international adoption
safeguard children's rights
#secularization of social values has lad to a
focus on self interest & self growth
#birth to unmarried mothers are twice as likely for
African American women and latina women as for European American women
#difficulties teen parents experience are related to their
-personality characteristics
-relationships with peers
-experience of sexual abuse
-social backgrounds
-early family relationships with own parents
compared to teens who did not have babies, adolescent mothers are
-less independent
-less certain of themselves
-less trusting of others
teen mothers felt pregnancy brought negative changes such as
-not feeling attractive
-no longer able to participate in their usual activities
-loss of freedom
teen parents reported they needed to give up ___ to be good mothers
negative behaviors, outbursts, of anger
3 kinds of relationships between teen moms and their moms
replace teen mom as mom of child, assist teen mom and supplement their care as needed, assist and teach teens how to be good mothers
in latino families that held strong values regarding the importance of family values and obligations and held traditional beliefs about gender roles
conflict was lower and cohesion increased
which group was reported to be less likely to have no contact with their children
African American fathers
the majority of American women are estimated to marry by the age of ___
30
both women and men cited these factors as the cause for divorce
-marital unhappiness
-incompatibility
-communication
wives were more likely to cite ___ as reason for divorce
serious emotional and behavioral problems like extramarital affairs, physical spouse abuse
husbands were more likely to cite ___ as reason for divorce
daily interpersonal stresses such as wives whining, nagging and fault finding
demographic variables associated with divorce
lower education, age, being in a family that experienced divorce
grief is
combination of feelings of anger, sadness, and love
mavis Hetherington describes 4 basic facts about divorce
divorce is not a single event, changes due to marital transitions affect entire family system, entire social milieu influences on individuals response to transition, there is great diversity in the ways parents and children respond to change
religious beliefs can either____ the stress of divorce
increase or decrease
researchers suggest that it takes ____ years to adapt to all the changes of divorce and adapt to new patterns of life
2
according to mavis H. parallel parenting is when
each parent went his or her own way, ignoring the other parent as much as possible
3 kinds of divorce described by emergy
cooperative divorce, distant divorce, angry divorce
how should a couple tell children they are divorcing
both parents should tell the children before 1 parent leaves
3 things divorcing parents should not do
burden children with own negative views, blame the other parent, ask children to take sides
___% of children feel relieved when parents divorce
10
___appear less affected than ___ at the time of the divorce or remarriage
younger children, elementary school children
benefits in remarriage include
emotional closeness, intimacy, sexual satisfaction, financial stability
mavis h identifies 4 myths that create unrealistic expectations
nuclear family myth, instant love expectations, compensatory myth
successful families reported ___ got them through stressful periods
commitment
young girls in __ families appear to act out more than ones in ___ families
divorced, intact
due to the _________ of marriage, if homosexuals were allowed to get married, this would make their relationship real
symbolic significance
it is a ______ recognized process to get married
nationally
in vitro fertilization ranges from ____ while surrogacy cost between ___
$8,000- 10,000
115,000-150,000
public adoptions require that biological parents______
forfeit their parental rights
____&______ require that Guatemala require single parents to supply___
china, Guatemala. affidavits of heterosexuality
lesbian women who contemplated the idea of having a male figure in the child's life could be grouped in 3 categories
deliberate, flexible, ambivalent
lesbian partners reported a high level of relationship satisfaction and greater satisfaction with the __________
division of household
____ were more likely than other groups to use positive parenting strategies and to avoid spanking their children
gay fathers
young adults referenced 3 groups in talking about supports in their childhood
parents, extended family, friends
in respect to gender identity there is no evidence that children of lesbian or gay parents _______
have an increased likelihood of having a lesbian/ gay gender identity or same sex sexual orientation
regardless of sexual orientation of parents, parents' reports of close relationships with their teens predicted__________
adolescents psychological stability, their competence in school and social relations
estimated that between ___ and___ % of lesbian and gay parents will separate
40, 50
reason for parents separation includes
incompatibility, differing views, difficulties in sharing, family, responsibility, financial, disagreements
school activities that are valued by children work as ___ to decrease problematic behaviors
buffers
young children get their ideas about their bodies from
colloquial expressions, bodily sensations, time devoted to that part of the body,
when given accurate info in words they can understand children can develop ___ about what they must do to get over an illness
scripts
length of time expected to reorganize life after the death of a loved one
2 years
natural disasters vary in their predictability and unpredictability increases
stress
4 phases of grief described by bowlby
period of hurting, period of protest and yearning, period of sadness and despair, period of reorganization of life
dougy center list several ways in which children's grief differs from adults
more physical, less verbal, express anger about the death more directly, may be more attuned to parents needs and feelings than parents realize, become immersed in activity and not grieve
david finkelhor focused on these stresses in childhood
disasters, victimization, adversity,
finkelhor believed ___ prior to a ___ can intensify the emotional reaction
victimization, disaster
ontogentic refers to
the origin and development of an individual organism
research suggests when european americans and african americans are carefully matched, ___ families have more children maltreatment
european americans
dante cicchetti and sheree toth define 4 major areas of abuse
physical, sexual, neglect, emotional
estimates suggest that ___ and ___ have experienced sexual abuse by the age of 18
1 in 4 girls, 1 in 6 boys
while studies reveal that foster care may benefit children,
out of home placement with strangers may place an extra layer of stress for children already under emotional siege
an effective program for physically abused children
multistage therapy for child abuse and neglect (MST-CAN)
a form of cognitive behavioral therapy first used to help traumatized sexually abused children
trauma- focused cognitive behavioral therapy (TF-CBT)
approx. ____ children are placed in foster care each year
300,000
in a study by researchers from the university of Minnesota children who stayed at home with the maltreated parent ___
had slightly fewer problems than those who went to foster care
while disasters had a direct effect on the feelings of depression
it was primarily the daily stressors that were the major source for stress
in 2007 ___ was/ were listed as the major causes of homelessness
poverty, domestic violence, family disputes
deployment of military personnel consists of 4 stages
pre- deployment, deployment, reunion, post deployment
it is estimated that ___ of returning soldiers suffer ___
1/3, PTSD