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Exam 1 (Part 2 Chapters 4-6)

James Henslin 11E
What is the difference between ascribed status and achieved status?
Ascribed status: a position an individual either inherits at birth or receive involuntarily later in life
Achieved status: positions that is earned, accomplished, or involve at least some effort or activity
What is one of the oldest social institutions?
Because of their close-knit structure and separation from modernization, have the Old Order Amish been able to resist all change that has challenged the core values of their community
Is the amount of personal space people require a cultural universal that is consistent from one culture to the next?
Do stereotypes deeply influence how we react to one another?
When Professor Jones is before his class lecturing, he has assumed the front stage, based on the terminology used in _______.
What is macrosociology?
Macrosocilogy: analysis of social life that focuses on broad features of society (such as social class and the relationships of groups to one another; usually used by functionalists and conflict theorists)
Define social structure.
the framework of society that surrounds us (consists of the ways people and groups are related to one another; this framework gives direction to and set limits on our behavior)
What are the three primary variables in determining one's social class?
Income, Education, and Occupational prestige
Expectations that define appropriate or inappropriate behavior for the occupant of a status are called ________.
What are social institutions?
Social institutions: the organized, usual, or standard ways by which society meets its basic needs (ie. Family, Religion, Education, Economics, Medicine, Politics, Law, Science, Military, and Mass media)
What social institution is most recognized for allocating power, determining authority, and preventing chaos?
What term does Durkheim use to describe the degree to which members of a society are united by shared values and other social bonds?
Social Integration
In what three states do 75 percent of the Old Order Amish live?
Pennsylvania, Ohio, and Indiana
What anthropologist was recognized for his work on personal space?
Edward Hall
Define dramaturgy.
(an approach, pioneered by Erving Goffman, in which social life is analyzed in terms of drama or the stage; also called) dramaturgical analysis
What is the first step in the research model?
Select a Topic
When an instrument measures what it is intended to measure, it is considered to possess the quality of _______.
What are the liabilities in using the participant observation as a research method?
Generalizability and getting involve in the lives of the people they are observing
For an independent variable to be the cause of an event, does it must precede that which is changed (the dependent variable)?
What are the four primary factors that affect which research method to use?
Affect to resources, Access to subjects, Purpose of the research, and the researcher's background or training
Do most sociologists believe that theory is necessary when doing research?
Define validity.
the extent to which an operational definition measures what it is intended to measure
What are two programs that sociologists and many students use for quantitative analysis?
MicroCase and SPSS
Which research method involves collecting data by having people answer a series of questions?
What is the greatest flaw in using self-administered questionnaires for a research study?
Researchers don't know the conditions under which people answered the questions.
Define rapport.
a feeling of trust between researchers and the people they are studying
In an experiment, one group of participants is exposed to treatment, another is exposed to an application identified to them as treatment, and another is not exposed to any treatment. In such a procedure, the participants who are not exposed to any form of treatment, either genuine or false, are classified as the ________ group.
When Peter Rossi and the National Opinion Research Center studied the homeless, it was necessary for them to develop a practical and accurate description to determine exactly what constituted being homeless. This description would be classified as an _______.
Operational definition
What are the three qualities on which research ethics is based?
Honesty, Truth and Openness
Which sociologist argued that research without theory is simply a collection of unrelated "facts"
C. Wright Mills
Diana Scully and Joseph Marolla conducted structured interviews of convicted rapists who were in prison. They divided the interviews equally between themselves, utilizing the same questions and methods. What was the primary objective for dividing the group of interviews equally?
Because the sex of the interviewers can bias research results
In hunting and gathering societies, who routinely contributed the most food to the group?
What is the sociological significance of the various social revolutions?
the type of society that we live in will determine the kind of people we become
What has been called "the springs of life?" Why?
Primary Groups (By this he meant that primary groups, such as family and friends are essential to out emotional well-being)
What are reference groups?
groups we refer to when we evaluate ourselves.
What is the most intimate of all groups?
Primary Groups
What did the Asch experiment demonstrate?
Group Conformity
Which society is characterized as being the most egalitarian and nomadic, consisting of 25 to 40 members?
Hunting and Gathering Society
What was the impetus for the first social revolution?
Pasture and Horticulture
What set the stage for the emergence of the earliest form of social inequality?
Domestication Revolution
What sociologist suggested that gender inequality became more pronounced with the development of the plow, as men assumed the duties of plowing and caring for the cattle?
Elise Boulding
What was the first nation to have an excess of 50 percent of its workforce in service industries?
United States
What phrase became synonymous with the research Stanley Milgram conducted on "the small world phenomenon"?
Six Degrees of Separation
Why did sociologist Judith Kleinfeld feel Milgram "stacked the deck" in his "small world phenomenon" experiment?
The "starters" came from mailing lists of people who were likely to have higher incomes and therefore were not representative of average people
What is diffusion of responsibility?
giving help is no more their responsibility than anyone else's
What did Stanley Milgram's teacher-learner experiment demonstrate?
to see how Americans might react to orders from authority ("The teacher declared that it was inhuman and to stop, but they were submissive when the "white coat" told them it must continue, even though the students screamed in agony")
Who developed the concept of "groupthink?"
Irving Janis