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what are 4 major types of compounds composed of CHON?
carbohydrates, proteins, lipids, nucleic acids.
why can carbon do a lot of things?
it is has four outer electrons and can form four bonds; single, double, triple, and quadruple bonds. it is also in all organic compounds.
what is a macromolecule?
a large organic molecule. each small organic molecule is a unit of a macromolecule.
what are the four classes of macromolecules?
polysaccharides or carbohydrates, triglycerides or lipids, polypeptides or proteins, and nucleic acids such as DNA and RNA.
what do nucleic acids (such as DNA and RNA) contain?
carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen and phosphorus (CHON P).
What are three elements your body needs trace amounts of for proper functioning?
protein, potassium, and iron.
what are the four classes of organic compounds (carbohydrates, lipids, proteins, and nucleic acids) known as?
polymers or macromolecules.
what are carbohydrates used for by the body?
energy and structural support in cell walls of plans and exoskeletons of insects and crustaceans.
what is monosacchride also known as and what do they include?
simple sugars and glucose, galactose, fructose.
what is a simple sugar or monosaccharide when two are combined?
disaccharides (double sugars like sucrose) or polysaccharides (long chains like cellulose, chitin, and glycogen).
if all the macromolecules are made mainly of the elements CHO, how are they different?
they all have different ratios and structural formulas for the cell wall.
what are the subunits that make up proteins? what are they used for?
amino acids. they build cells and do much of the work inside organisms.
what is condensation and what does it do with amino acids?
it is the removal of water molecules to form chains of polypeptides.
what is a lipid?
a nonpolar (won't dissolve in water) molecule. it serves as a waxy covering on plants (cuticle), pigments (chlorophyll) and steroids.
where is a carboxyl (-COOH) functional group found?
at the end of the fatty acid that does NOT attach to glycerol.
what does DNA or deoxyribose nucleic acid carry?
the instructions for making every protein needed by a living thing.
what does RNA do to a DNA?
is copies it and transfers the genetic information so that proteins can be made.
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