Elements and Macromolecules in Orgnaisms
what are 99% of all living things composed of?
carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen (CHON).
what are 4 major types of compounds composed of CHON?
carbohydrates, proteins, lipids, nucleic acids.
what are the two ways biologists classify compounds?
organic and inorganic.
what is an organic compound?
it is derived from living things and contain carbon and hydrogen.
what is an inorganic compound?
(generally) derived from non-living things.
why can carbon do a lot of things?
it is has four outer electrons and can form four bonds; single, double, triple, and quadruple bonds. it is also in all organic compounds.
what two elements are in all organic compounds?
hydrogen and carbon.
what is a macromolecule?
a large organic molecule. each small organic molecule is a unit of a macromolecule.
what are the four classes of macromolecules?
polysaccharides or carbohydrates, triglycerides or lipids, polypeptides or proteins, and nucleic acids such as DNA and RNA.
what do carbohydrates contain?
only carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen (CHO).
what do proteins contain?
carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, and nitrogen (CHON).
what do nucleic acids (such as DNA and RNA) contain?
carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen and phosphorus (CHON P).
what are two examples of nucleic acids?
DNA and RNA
What are three elements your body needs trace amounts of for proper functioning?
protein, potassium, and iron.
what are the four classes of organic compounds (carbohydrates, lipids, proteins, and nucleic acids) known as?
polymers or macromolecules.
what are carbohydrates used for by the body?
energy and structural support in cell walls of plans and exoskeletons of insects and crustaceans.
what are the smaller subunits that make up carbohydrates?
what are the carbon, hyrdogen, and oxygen ratio in a monosaccharide?
what is monosacchride also known as and what do they include?
simple sugars and glucose, galactose, fructose.
what is a simple sugar or monosaccharide when two are combined?
disaccharides (double sugars like sucrose) or polysaccharides (long chains like cellulose, chitin, and glycogen).
what are macromolecules also known as?
if all the macromolecules are made mainly of the elements CHO, how are they different?
they all have different ratios and structural formulas for the cell wall.
what are the subunits that make up proteins? what are they used for?
amino acids. they build cells and do much of the work inside organisms.
what do amino acids act as?
enzymes to control the metabolic reactions in organisms.
what are the two functional groups in an amino acid?
amino group (-NH2) and carboxyl group (-COOH).
what is condensation and what does it do with amino acids?
it is the removal of water molecules to form chains of polypeptides.
what are polypeptides?
they make proteins in dehydration synthesis.
what are peptide bonds?
hold amino acids to each other, THEY MUST NEED AN ENZYME in order to do so.
what is a lipid?
a nonpolar (won't dissolve in water) molecule. it serves as a waxy covering on plants (cuticle), pigments (chlorophyll) and steroids.
what makes up a cell membrane?
what are lipids mainly made up of?
carbon and hydrogen, not as much oxygen.
what are fats made up of?
glycerol (alcohol) and three fatty acid chains.
what is triglyceride?
the subunits of lipids.
what does it mean to be saturated?
only single bonds between carbons.
what does it mean to be unsaturated?
contains at least one double bond.
a fatty acid may be _____ or _____.
saturated or unsaturated.
where is a carboxyl (-COOH) functional group found?
at the end of the fatty acid that does NOT attach to glycerol.
what is a special type of lipid?
what will lipids dissolve in?
if there are all single bonds between carbon in a fatty acid it is...?
if there is a double bonds between carbon in a fatty chain it is....?
what carries the genetic information of a cell?
what does DNA or deoxyribose nucleic acid carry?
the instructions for making every protein needed by a living thing.
what does RNA do to a DNA?
is copies it and transfers the genetic information so that proteins can be made.
what is a nucleotide?
the subunit that makes up nucleic acids.