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207 terms

Exam 2

STUDY
PLAY
On a population growth curve, the _____________________ phase results in the same
percentage increase each year?
exponential
What is the correct sequence of phases in a typical population growth curve?
Lag, exponential,deceleration, and stable equilibrium
Which phase of a population growth curve is characterized by very slow growth due to reproduction and offspring growth?
The Lag Phase
The human population growth curve is currently in which phase?
Exponential Phase
In a bacterial growth curve, the population follows a typical growth curve until what happens?
Until the toxic waste products become present
extrinsic limiting factors
limiting factors that come from outside of the population (predators, natural accidents, loss of sunlight)
intrinsic limiting factors
limiting factors that are within the population (regulation)
environmental resistance
All the limiting factors that act together to limit the growth of a population.
density dependant limiting factors
limiting factor that depends on population size
carrying capacity
maximum sustainable capacity for a species. Can be somewhat flexible.
ecological footprint
The amount of biologically productive land and water needed to support a person or population.
What types of limiting factors are a component of environmental resistance?
Raw material availability
Energy availability
Accumulation of waste products
Interactions among organisms
R-strategists
small organisms that have a short life, produce many offspring, exploit unstable environments, and don't reach a carrying capacity. Bacteria is example.density-independent limiting factors.
K-strategists
species where organisms tend to reproduce later in life, have a smaller number of offspring, and are long living. Example is humans. controlled by density-dependent limiting factors.
Which countries have the lowest population growth rate and the highest population growth rate?
Highest Population Growth=less developed countries(India)
Lowest Population Growth=more developed countries(America)
Which organism was introduced into the Great Lakes and has expanded its range to the Mississippi River?
zebra mussel
If the human population continues to grow at its current rate, it is expected to double to ______ by the year 2060.
9.4 billion
Which factors may cause a population to grow?
social, political, economic, and ethical factors
Populations of r-strategists will be most affected by what type of factors?
density-independent limiting factors.include changing weather conditions that kill large numbers of organisms, habitat loss such as when a pond dries up or fire destroys a forest, or an event such as a deep snow or flood that buries sources of food and leads to the death of entire populations.
What is the current (2010) human population?
6.8 billion
dispersal
movement from densely populated area to a new area
age distribution
number of individuals of each age in the population.
emigration
pressure to leave an area
immigration
migrate into a new area
carrying capacity
Largest number of individuals of a population that a given environment can support.
biotic potential
maximum reproductive capacity of a population under optimum environmental conditions
natality
number of individuals entering the population by reproduction during a certain period(birthrate)
sex ratio
ratio of males to females in a population
What factors are important in determining population size and what factors impact population growth?
...
What are the major concerns about genetically modified organisms (GMOs)?
Unintended harm to other organisms,Reduced effectiveness of pesticides,Allergenicity,Unknown effects on human health
What is the size of the ecological footprint of Japan?
4.73 (five times larger than their biological resources)
The controlled use of fire was the first use of energy in a form other than ______?
sunlight
The shift from using wood as a source of fuel to coal was caused by what factor?
dense,rapidly growing settlements outstripped wood production
The remains of plants, animals, and microorganisms is commonly referred to as _______?
fossil fuels
In 2008 world oil prices reached what level?
$147/barrel
What was the principal use of oil during the first 60 years of production?
kerosene
Which countries are members of OPEC?
Saudi Arabia, Kuwait, Libya, Algeria, Iraq, Qatar,United Arab Emirates, Iran, Indonesia, Nigeria, Ecuador, Angola, and Venezuela.
What happened to oil demand and prices when Iraq invaded Kuwait in 1990?
Prices dramatically increased
The sharp decline in U.S. oil consumption in 1973 and 1979 was the result of what actions?
OPEC proclaimed an oil embargo on the United States
How much of the world's oil reserve is controlled by OPEC?
75%
Since 1970, oil prices were at their highest following production cuts by what three countries?
Lybia,Syria, Iraq
What percent of the world's oil production is controlled by OPEC countries?
40%
Electricity is both a way that energy is consumed and a way that it is _________.
supplied
In order for a nation to participate in the Industrial Revolution, they had to have what resource?
coal deposits
Which country has the highest per capita energy use for transportation?
United States
Transcontinental pipelines that are currently used to transport natural gas were originally constructed when and to do what?
to transport oil during WW2
What is the correct historical sequence of fuel use in the U.S. from 1800 to the present?
wood,coal,oil,gas
What consumer good is responsible for creating jobs, increasing energy consumption, and altering people's lifestyle?
the automobile
Almost all electrical energy is produced as a result of ___________?
burning fossil fuels
About 80% of China's population use what type of fuel to produce energy?
biomass
What type of current commercially available car engine is the only one with zero emissions?
electrical
What percent of electricity in the United States is generated by nuclear power plants?
20%
During what season of the year is the demand for gasoline highest in the United States?
the Summer
Over half of world energy is consumed by 25 countries who are members of which
organization?
Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD)
During what geologic time period, were the conditions in the world were conducive to the formation of large deposits of fossil fuels?
Carboniferous
What is the relationship between the price of energy and the price of goods and services?
the higher the price of energy, the higher price of goods
World War II caused an ______ in energy demand for manufacturing and transportation
increase
Analysts predict that the worldwide demand for energy will ________ in the future.
increase
Since 1999 oil prices have become increasingly volatile. How have China and India impacted oil prices?
they have caused an increase in price due to their high demand
Why has there been a major increase in the use of natural gas in the United States?
viable alternative to oil and less pollution
Approximately ______ of the energy used in a typical household is used to heat water.
17%
In North America, roughly 5% of the world's population, consumes _______ of the gasoline produced in the world by private automobile use.
40%
How have many cities around the globe attempted to reduce the congestion from automobiles?
passed regulations that use financial or other means to discourage automobile traffic in highly congested areas
What are ways to save energy at home?
...
What is hydraulic fracturing or "hydrofracking" used for and why are government officials hesitant to move forward with hydraulic fracturing of shale to obtain natural gas?
used to extract natural gas from shale
Concern=Hydraulic fracturing requires one to five million gallons of water per well
What is the primary source of energy in much of the developing world?
fossil fuels
What percentage of the world's commercial energy is furnished by fossil fuels?
80%
Fossil-fuel such as "peat" (peat moss) deposits are recent collections of organic material that are little changed and contain what percentage of water?
approximately 70%
Why is oil transported in liquid form?
easily transported through pipelines
Alaska relies on oil for about _____ percent of its revenue.
80%
The Middle East has about _____ percent of the world's oil reserves.
55%
Which fossil fuel is the most abundant?
coal
How is ethanol produced and what crops are used?
ferment corn or wheat
Large accumulations of decayed plant materials form which resource?
coal
What are the disadvantages of coal mining?
landscape disturbance, acid mine drainage, air pollution
Which form of coal is relatively abundant and most widely used?
Bituminous
Which type of coal has the least amount of moisture and the greatest amount of fixed carbon?
anthracite
surface mining
process of removing material on top of a vein, efficient but destructive.
underground mining
vertical shaft is used to extract coal. minimizes surface disturbance but costly and dangerous
acid mine drainage
A kind of pollution, associated with coal mines, in which bacteria convert the sulfur in coal into compounds that form sulfuric acid.
secondary recovery
Water or gas is pumped into a well to drive the oil out of the pores in the rock
off shore drilling
used to reach oil located under ocean floor
geothermal extraction
power derived from Earth's internal heat
How is liquefied natural gas formed?
by cooling the gas which in turn forms condensation and turns liquid
Hydroelectric power plants are most commonly located near _________.
a body of water
Why was the building of the Tellico Dam in Tennessee delayed?
the threat of fish extinction
What are the major causes of desertification?
lower developed countries need fuelwood to heat therefore desertification occurs, too many livestock on too little land,inappropriate irrigation practices
What are different types of biomass?
wood, grass, agricultural waste, and dung
What substances are released when waste materials, such as paper and plastics, are burned?
carbon monoxide and hydrocarbons
The term "mining heat" refers to which power source?
geothermal
Solar, geothermal, and tidal energy are forms of ________ resources.
renewable
Which three states in the United States have the greatest potential to use hydroelectric power?
Idaho, Oregon, Washington
What environmental problems are associated with large hydroelectric dams?
the flooding of vast areas of land, effects migration of fish, effects quality of water, few health hazards
The best sites for tidal hydroelectric plants have what characteristics?
a difference between high and low tides of at least 16 feet is required(only 40 sites around world)
Which country has the largest active tidal generating station?
France
Which country has half of the world's geothermal electrical generating capacity?
United States
Reykjavik, the capital city of Iceland, heats its buildings from geothermal sources at a cost that is _______ of what it would be if oil were used.
25%
What environmental problems are associated with geothermal energy?
unpleasant form of air pollution,minerals in the steam corrode pipes and equipment,toxic to fish if wastewater is discharged into local bodies of water.
The world's fastest growing energy resource since the late 1990's is ________.
wind
What environmental problems are associated with wind power
ugly sight, birds might get caught, noisy
Which type of technology converts light energy directly into electricity?
solar power
Black lung disease is a hazard of working in what type of environment or job?
underground mining
Why was oil originally chosen as an alternative to coal?
easier to transport
What are requirements for tidal energy development?
a difference between high and low tides of at least 16 feet is required(only 40 sites around world)
Is the burning of solid waste a major source of energy in industrialized countries?
No it's mostly used in less-developed countries such as Bangladesh
Do energy conservation methods require a change in the standard of living?
to a degree, it's more expensive
In some areas of the world, streams have a steep gradient and constant flow of water so __________ may be generated without a reservoir.
electricity
China's rapid industrial development is _________ its energy supply.
outstripping
The vast majority of the oil entering the oceans results from what sources?
originated from microscopic marine organisms
Radioactive waste is categorized in _____ general categories.
three
What are forms of electromagnetic radiation?
gamma,alpha,beta
What was the first goal for developing nuclear energy?
to create nuclear weapons
The first controlled nuclear chain reaction occurred at Stag Field in Chicago in 1942 which lead directly to ____________.
atomic bombs dropped on Japan
As of 2006 there were ____ nuclear power plants under construction in eleven countries.
24
One of the greatest terrorism-related nuclear threats is from ______________.
radiological dispersal devices (RDDs), or dirty bombs. They cause panic, not numerous deaths.
Uranium mining and milling waste contains low levels of ____________.
radioactivity
Public acceptance of nuclear power plants has been declining because of expensive ___________.
disposal process
The Hanford plutonium and uranium production facility was important for what reason?
dumping into Colombia River
What is the name of the process in which the fuel is removed from a nuclear plant, its surfaces are cleaned, and people are permanently prevented from coming in contact with the building?
decommissioning
As fission occurs in a nuclear reactor the concentration of U-235 atoms does what?
decreases
Which one of the process involves increasing the U-235 content of the ore from 0.7% to 3%?
enrichment
How much of the heat generated in a nuclear power plant is waste heat?
3/4
What are the biological effects of ionizing radiation?
damage to DNA, mutations, damage to molecules in cells
Which cancer is strongly linked to increased radiation exposure?
leukemia
Which type of waste will be placed in underground tunnels at Yucca Mountain, Nevada if the siting is completed?
nuclear waste
In what two countries have nuclear power accidents had the greatest effect on people's attitudes towards safety?
U.S and Ukraine
Radioactive waste from the Hanford Plant in Washington leaked 150 square miles into __________,__________,_____________.
the colombia river
What type of cancer in children has now been found to be associated with Chernobyl?
thyroid
Current development and construction of nuclear power plants is occurring mostly in which geographic region?
Asia
What type of fission reactor designed to produce radioactive fuel from nonradioactive uranium?
nuclear breeder reactor
Which type of reactor uses ordinary water as a coolant?
boiling water reactor
____________ is the process whereby two lightweight atomic nuclei combine to form a heavier nucleus.
nuclear fusion
A nuclear power plant could not operate effectively or safely without a source of _________.
coolant
The political disintegration of the ________and _______ has made large numbers of nuclear weapons unnecessary.
soviet union eastern europe
Each step in the nuclear fuel cycle poses a _________exposure problem.
potential
The nuclear power industry has trouble disposing of ___________, even with new technology.
nuclear waste
Most experts feel that the best solution for permanent disposal of high-level nuclear waste is to _______________________________.
busy in a stable geological formation
Nuclear power plants do not produce carbon dioxide, and therefore __________ to global climate change.
don't contribute
With increasing oil costs, global warming issues, and other factors, interest in nuclear power has _________ in some countries.
increased
___________ will probably continue to be a part of energy production, particularly in countries that lack fossil-fuel reserves.
nuclear energy
Pollution _____________ with population density.
increases
Genetic diversity is influenced by what factors?
migration, sexual reproduction, population size, bio diversity number and different kinds of genes in the population
Why do waterfowl present special wildlife management problems?
migratory
Why are sport hunting seasons regulated to the fall?
...
What do fish require for a healthy population?
nutrients
What does a red-cockaded woodpecker need that it cannot get from a well-managed forest plantation?
dead trees to provide nesting
Distinguish between the different harvesting methods of mature trees: clear-cutting; selective harvesting; patchwork clear-cutting;
clear cutting: removal of all trees in an area
selective harvesting: single species tree harvesting
patchwork:
What are the various techniques for managing wildlife?
...
List why certain species are more likely to become extinct and give examples of these species.
cheetah b/c of the hour glass effect
What are causes desertification?
overgrazing, cutting trees, improper human use
What is the greatest cause of extinction?
habit destruction and fragmentation
What happened to private landowners who had northern spotted owls nesting in their forests when the owl was declared a threatened species?
forced off their land
World fish harvests have remained constant since 1989. What does this indicate?
more efficient techniques and capture methods
Salmon introduction in the Great Lakes has brought in millions of dollars from sportfishing, yet environmentally it has caused what to happen?
nutrient overload, wild salmon at threat of extinction/local odor problem
What invasive species is an external parasite of lake trout and decimated populations for more than 20 years?
Sea Lamprey
What are the environmental impacts from freshwater aquaculture?
local algae blooms interfere with other species
The Endangered Species Act of 1973 allowed the government to do what?
jurisdiction over any species designated as endangered
What taxonomic group displays the greatest biodiversity?
insects
Distinguish between the terms threatened species and endangered species .
threatened=could become extinct if a critical environmental factor is changed
endangered=have such small numbers in immediate danger of becoming extinct
What does high genetic diversity mean as related to individuals of a population and population size?
higher genetic diversity= more individuals of a population and higher population size
_________ can be considered the original force driving species change.
evolution
As the human population increases extinction rates ___________.
rise
One of the consequences of selective breeding is the _____of genetic diversity.
loss
In the past few hundred years, global trade and tourism have in many ways rendered natural barriers______, allowing non-native species to _____vast distances.
...
Approximately ______ percent of the world's coral reefs have been lost to extinction.
10%
Humans have changed ecosystems more rapidly and extensively in the last _____ years than in any other period.
50
Invasive alien species, as a result of globalization, are not only the second greatest threat to native biodiversity but can also be harmful to _____________________.
...
Early towns were usually built near what natural formations?
where waterways were
Large-scale migration to cities was caused by what?
industrial revolution,jobs, immigrants
What encouraged suburban growth?
deteriorating city conditions/ the automobile
What contributes to sprawl and what are the impacts of urban sprawl?
poor planning, high prices in city,
What are the characteristics of a smart or sustainable community?
urban sprawl
The 1872 Mining Law allows for ______________________________.
mining public/federal land
Why has per capita cropland declined in all regions of the world?
population growth
What does it mean when an area is designated as wilderness?
for presevation and protection in their natural condition
What percentage of U.S. federal recreational lands is designated as wilderness?
10%
"Green buildings" have been built over the past few years using a standard. What is the acronym for the standard and what is the official name of the standard?
leadership in energy and environmental design(LEED)
A(n) ________________ is an effective tool for promoting efficient land use and establishing boundaries for development.
urban growth limit/boundary
Development along transportation routes is referred to as ___________.
...
Approximately ______ percent of the land in the U.S. is used for urban centers and transportation.
...
As towns became larger, surrounding farmland became __________.
smaller
Historically, water was ________ used for transportation.
mostly
Most major cities are located _________ rivers, lakes, or the ocean
near
In the time span between pre-European settlement to the present, the United States has lost approximately _______ of its wetlands.
53%
What technology is available to assist citizens in participating in land-use planning decisions?
enacting zoning ordinances, gathering data, and developing mechanisms(citizens can take part in public hearings to give their input)
Which state has been very successful in controlling the negative impacts of urban growth?
Hawaii
What is an example of a local growth management action?
coastal zone is 3 miles out to sea, CA Coastal Act 1976 (local action is took on growth management)
What is an example of a negative impact of urban sprawl in the United States?
more air and water pollution
As a result of unplanned development, floodplains and wetlands are often ___________.
depleted
Approximately ______ percent of the land in the U.S. is used for urban centers and transportation.
4.3%
Mass transit is economically feasible only along ________ populated routes.
heavily
Since 1940, the use of mass transit in North America has _________.
declined
How much of the heat generated in a nuclear power plant is waste heat?
2/3
The Hanford plutonium and uranium production facility was important for what reason?
produce bombs
gas-cooled reactor
Carbon dioxide serves as a coolant for a graphite-moderated core. natural isotopic mixtures of uranium are used as a fuel.
nuclear breeder reactor
converts a nonfuel (U-238) into a fuel (Pu-239)
liquid metal fast-breeder reactor
AKA nuclear breeder reactor
biodiversity hotspot
area that is in direct threat by humans
number one cause of extinction
habitat loss
AB 1493
CA adopted clean air act to help cut emissions from vehicles
AB 32
passed to help mandate emissions from stationary sources(industries)
SB 1368
stop from buying foreign sources of energy in Cali
Highest polluter
transport
what percentage of people don't have electricity in Bangladesh
70% Population=150million
biggest coal producer?
Wyoming
biofuels production
converts plant sugars to ethanol
most used crop?
corn 1/3 food products contain some form