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Terms in this set (65)
it is generally thought of as good change or positive change.
at all levels be it individual, societal, global level. also it has a time dimension.
development has often been linked to
the idea of progress and also considered as forward looking and imagining a better world.
development (the concise Oxford dictionary)
is a stage of growth or advancement.
development is closely associated with
before the late 1970s development was concerned with
increasing incomes and overall growth
since 1980s development is perceived as
economic growth and enhancing freedoms (promotes human rights and capabilities.)
the 2000/2001 Human Development Report recognized that
development is not only about income and economic growth but also creating an enabling environment for people to develop their full potentials so that they can lead productive and creative lives to satisfy their needs and interest .
The writers who have noted the origin of the modern process of development
Escobar and Preston noted that development started in
the late 1940 with the emergence of the classical traditional approaches(modernization theory)
Escobar and Preston link the modern era of development to
a speech made by US President Harry Truman in 1949.
Cowen and Shenton (1996) recognized that modern development originated
earlier than the late 1940s. during the 18th and 19th century.
this was the period of European intellectual history where the belief was that science and rational thinking could progress humans from barbarianism to civilization.
during 18-19th century, those who did not adopt this new thinking were considered as
traditional and backward
Dickenson also note that at the time of the European' age of discovery
some indigenous people in the Americas, Africa, Asia and Australia had highly developed sophisticated cultures and technologies.
in Latin America
the Aztec empire had developed a complex, highly stratified society with nobility which held military, skilled craftsmen, intensive agriculture, sophisticated urban system.
in Western South America (the inca empire)
had agricultural techniques that include irrigation, well developed road network that linked the widely scattered rural areas to the imperial centre.
in Asia-China in C15th and C16th had
inherited a long tradition in philosophy, art, and literature. they had the first of silk, porcelain and explosives.
Some african states also had
well established trading and agricultural systems such as the kingdoms of West Africa and Zimbabwe.
Muslim culture centered in the Middle East,
made import contributions to learning in the area of mathematics, astronomy, cartography and medicine. hospitals were a feature of the principal Muslin cities as early as C11th.
by the time european expansion began
the third world already had highly complex civilization with high levels of cultural, social, technical development.
Dickerson(1985) argue that
some of these areas were not underdeveloped or undeveloped but rather pre-developed because they had high degrees of cultural, politics, and economic development before the arrival of Europe.
Dickerson(1985) and Marcus (2008) attribute
underdevelopment to colonialism and argue that
colonialism created a pattern of unequal relationships between a European core and a dependent periphery.
modern era of development is considered to be the period
after the end of the WW2 and with the formation of the UN in 1945. It is often associated to a speech made by US President Harry Truman in 1949.
the speech of US President Harry Truman
the duty of the West to bring development to the underdeveloped countries.
Potter(2004) have suggested four approaches
classical traditional approaches, the historical empirical approaches, radical political economy dependency approach and bottom-up approaches.
fundamental dualism between the traditional indigenous underdeveloped sector and a modern developed westernized sector
based on the premise that there is gap between developed and developing countries and that the gaps can be overcome on an imitative basis.
traditional societies would have to
change their orientation away form the family, local community, religion and superstition in order to become modern, rational and entrepreneurial traditional cultures regarded as inimical to development.
a key proponent with the view that development in the core will trickle down to growth including in backward countries.
According to Hirshman, economic growth would occur through
the transmission of growth pole of capital, technology, value systems from the advanced countries to the traditional sectors / backward regions.
Walt Whitman Rostow (one of the modernization theorists)
identified 5 stages of economic growth in the development process in 1960 and recognized urban growth and development. the focus was on a top-down trickling of capitalist development from urban-industrial areas to other regions.
W.A.Arthur Lewis, an economist of West Indian Origin argued that the juxtaposition of the
traditional society with the advanced modern society meant that
there is a unlimited supply of labour for development.
during W. Arthur Lewis's period, development was seen as
principally by means of industrialization (urban based) thus industry can expand rapidly if industrialization is financed by foreign capital. this led to the policy of industrialization by incitation. many were of the view that was solution to the problem of backwardness was industrialization so most third world countries sought to industrialize.
Critique of modernization theory 1
modernization theory were as influenced by Eurocentric Development thinking. this means that they were rooted in Western European history and experiences such as the industrial revolution in England.
Critique of modernization theory 2
it failed to take into account global historical development, and especially the history of colonialism.
Critique of modernization theory 3
it failed to recognize that many countries of the South had little freedom to develop their own development goals and strategies beyond the dictate of colonial rule.
Critique of modernization theory 4
the theory devalues and misinterprets traditional societies as the lowest from or stage of development and the advanced stage of development always represented by Western societies.
Critique of modernization theory 5
it is also assumed that in traditional societies there is nothing before the beginning of development, only a series of deficiencies, weakness and incapacities.
Critique of modernization theory 6
the approach was also based on top-down rather than bottom-up approach implying that the process should be by development institutions rather than emerge from grassroots struggles of third world people. this increased polarization between the rich and the poor which at the international scale created a widening of the gap between the developed and the least developed countries.
the dependency school thought
radical dependency approaches became more prominent under the guide of
the Director of the United Nations Economic Commission for Latin America, Raul Prebisch.
Raul Prebisch argued that
the fact that economic growth in the advanced countries does not necessarily lead to the growth in the poor countries. they were resistant to Arthur Lewis call for industrialization by invitation and argued that the slave economy for instance had led to the underdevelopment in the region and persistent poverty.
Raul Prebisch explained that
poor countries exported primary commodities to the rich countries who then manufacture products and sold them back to poor countries. the value added by manufacturing a usable product always cost more than the primary products used to create those products. therefore, poor countries never be earning enough for their export earning in order to pay for imports.
Celso Furtado and Milton Santons drew attention to
the mode of incorporation of each country into the world capitalist system, identifying this as key cause of exploitation.
the thesis of the develment of underdevelopment views
development and underdevelopment a opposite sides of the same coin. the development of one area often necessitates the underdevelopment of another.
Dependency on a metropolitan core increases
the underdevelopment of satellites in the periphery.
more satellites are associated with metropoles,
the more they are held back because the urban cores and their extensive hinterlands後背地 have been incorporated 合体させるinto the global economy as exporting nodes. 節
proponents of dependency theory argued that
colonialism helped to put in place a set of dependent relations between core and periphery.
proponents of dependency theory saw colonialism as
an economic process of unequal exchange , as a political process aimed at administration and subordination of indigenous people, and a cultural process of imposing European superiority.
proponents of dependency theory argued that during colonial time
the periphery was inserted and brought into expanding network of economic exchanges with the core of world systems.
dependency theorist argued that the dominant capitalist powers, such as US, England, encouraged
the transformation of political and economic structures in order to serve their own interest.
the dependent states or colonial territories were organized to produce
primary product at minimal cost while at the same time, becoming an increasing market for industrial product.
the allocation of these resources is determined by
the economic interest of dominant states, and not by the economic interest of dependent states.
the dependent states supply
cheap minerals, agricultural commodities, cheap labor and also service as repositories of surplus, capital, obsolescent 廃れかかった technology.
the biggest obstacles to development are
not lack of capital or entrepreneurial skill, but rather the unfair international division of labor. this division of labour is the explanation for the underdevelopment of many third world countries.
the Economic Recovery Program (ERP) and Structural Adjustment Program (SAP) which came into being in the 1980s.
the Term Structural Adjustment Program is used to
describe the activities of the World Bank and the International Monetary Fund (IMF) in the design and support of packages of broad-based policy reforms.
the World Bank and IMF used
program-leading approach to promote structural adjustment vigorously in 1980s.
the specific instruments of structural reforms included
currency devaluation, reduction in public spending, price reforms, trade liberalization, reduction and removal of subsidies, privatization of public enterprises, and institutional reforms such as retrenchment or development, freeze on employment.
the economic recovery program and the structural adjustment program was
to resuscitate the economies of the third world which were facing serious economic problems as a result of lower export production and export earnings.
the structural adjustment program was supported
to lead to economic stabilization and growth with a consequent positive impact on poverty reduction .
criticisms of structural recovery program (SRP)
it doesn't focus on gender issues which is again due to the focus on SAP on efficiency, growth and stabilization, without considering structural constrains and inequality between men and women. women have relatively not fared well under economic reform programs.
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