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46 terms

physio lab exam1

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Magnifying powers of a microscope
4x, 10x, 45x, 100x (oil immersion)
Care and cleaning of a microscope
1) carry the microscope by holding on to the arm and base; 2) use the course knob only with low power; 3) clean the lenses with lens paper and distilled water (use alcohol ONLY if oil was used); 4) always leave the lowest power lens when putting away
The metric units used in microscopy
meter, gram, liter, and Celsius
plasma membrane
cell component that gives form and controls passage of materials into and out of cell
cytoplasm
cell component that serves as matrix substance in which chemical reactions occur
endoplasmic reticulum
cell component that metabolizes nonpolar compounds and stores Ca² in striated muscle cells, granular (rough) endoplasmic reticulum assists in protein synthesis
ribosomes
cell component that synthesizes proteins
golgi complex
cell component that synthesizes carbohydrates and packages molecules for secretion, secretes lipids and glycoproteins
mitochondria
cell component that release energy from from food molecules and transform energy into usable ATP
lysosomes
cell component that digest foreign molecules and worn and damaged organelles
peroxisomes
cell component that contain enzymes that detoxify harmful molecules and break down hydrogen peroxide
centrosome
cell component that helps organize spindle fibers and distribute chromosomes during mitosis
vacuoles
cell component that store and release various substances within the cytoplasm
microfilaments and microtubules
cell component that support cytoplasm and transport materials within the cytoplasm
cilia and flagella
cell component that move particles along cell surface or move the cell
nuclear envelope
cell component that supports nucleus and controls passage of materials between nucleus and cytoplasm
nucleolus
cell component that produces ribosomal RNA for ribosomes
chromatin
cell component that contains genetic code that determines which proteins will be manufactured by the cell
mitosis
the type of cell division that occurs when organs grow or cells within organs need to be replaced
meiosis
the type of cell division that only occurs in the gonads for the production of gametes
prophase
the stage of meiosis when the nuclear membrane disappears; spindles appear
metaphase
the stage of meiosis when the duplicated chromosomes separate and are pulled toward the centrioles
anaphase
the stage of meiosis when chromosomes line up along the equator of the cell
telophase
the stage of meiosis when chromosomes elongate into chromatin threads; nuclear membranes and nucleoli reappear
tissue
cells that are similar in structure and work together to perform a specialized activity
organ
groups or tissue integrated to perform one or more common functions
connective tiisue
has abundant amounts of extracellular material or matrix; examples are tendons and ligaments
homeostasis
the dynamic constancy of the internal environment
negative feedback mechanism
a control system where a stimulus initiates a response that reverses or reduces the stimulus, thereby stopping the response until the stimulus occurs again
positive feedback mechanism
homeostatic control mechanism that increases the stimulus to push the variable farther from its originial value
set point
the normal value
action potential
the electrical events conducted along the cell membrane that stimulate contraction; releases acetylcholine (ACh)
excitation-contraction coupling
the neurotransmitter chemical that stimulates contraction of skeletal muscles
twitch
a rapid contraction found stimulation
summation
the fiber twitches of different motor neurons
tetanus
maintenance of a sustained muscle contraction
muscle fatigue
sustained muscular spasm; causes are depletion of muscle glycogen and reduced ability of the sarcoplasm
brownian movement
the zigzag movement of the larger particles
diffusion
the movement of molecules from a region of higher concentration to a region of lower concentration
osmosis
the diffusion of water from a region , diffusion of molecules through a semipermeable membrane from a place of higher concentration to a place of lower concentration until the concentration on both sides is equal
dialysis
the process of osmosis through non-living membrane
hemolysis
Destruction of red blood cells; hypotonic
isotonic
contains the same amount of solutes as the red blood cells
hypertonic
contains more solutes and less water than in the red blood cells
hypotonic
contains no solutes, therefore 100% water
filtration
the process by which water and solutes are forced through a membrane from higher pressure into an area of lower pressure