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Chemistry Spring Final
ch. 8, ch. 10, gas laws, solutions
Terms in this set (63)
What is the oppostite of a synthesis reaction?
Chemical equations must satisfy what law?
Law of conservation of mass
Three things chemical equations show
Progression of chemical reactions
What is another name for a single displacement reaction?
A reaction in which two or more substances combine to form a new compound
A representation of the reactants and products of a chemical reaction by their symbols or formulas
Each element in group 17 can replace any element below it but not any element above it
Displacement of halogens
Steps to balance a chemical equation
1- word equation (identity names of reactant and products)
2- formula equation (correct formulas for words)
3- balance equation (look at each element on both sides to assure equal)
4- count atoms to be sure balanced
When the positive ion if one compound replaces the positive ion of another to form two new compounds
All metal hydroxides (except those containing group 1 metals) decompose when heated to yield metal oxides and water
Decomposition of metal hydroxides
Group 1 and 2 elements react with sulfur to create sulfides
Group 1 M2S
Group 2 MS
A way to describe a chemical reaction using chemical formulas and other symbols
He principle that the total amount of matter is constant during any physical or chemical change (matter is neither created nor destroyed during these types of changes)
Law of conservation of mass
Combustion reactions involve _______?
Compound of sulfur and another element
When metal chlorate is heated it decomposed to produce a metal chloride and oxygen
Decomposition of metal chlorates
The amount of energy involved in a single displacement reaction is usually ___________ than the amount of energy involved in synthesis or decomposition reactions
A chemical reaction that occurs when a substance reacts with oxygen, releasing energy in the form of heat and light
Simplest kind of decomposition reaction
Decomposition of binary compounds
Compound of oxygen and another element
The amount of heat energy required to melt one mole of solid at its melting point
Molar heat of fusion
The temperature at which a solid becomes a liquid
The physical change of a liquid to a solid by the removal of heat
A solid in which the particles are arranged randomly
The smallest portion of a crystal lattice that shows the three- dimensional pattern of the entire lattice
The temperature at which a solid and liquid are in equilibrium at 1 atm pressure
The temperature and pressure conditions at which the solid, liquid, and vapor of a substance can coexist at equilibrium
The temperature above which a substance cannot exist in the liquid state
The temperature at which the equilibrium vapor pressure of a liquid equals the atmospheric pressure
The process by which a liquid or solid changes to a gas
The process by which particles escape from the surface of a non boiling liquid and enter the gas state
The amount of heat energy needed to vaporize one mole of liquid at its boiling point
Molar heat of vaporization
A molecule is made up of two hydrogen atoms connected by single bonds to an oxygen atom
Structure of water
A gas that does not behave complete according to the assumptions of the kinetic-molecular theory
A dynamic condition in which two opposing changes occur at equal rates in a closed system
The process by which a gas changes to a liquid
An imaginary gas that perfectly fits all the assumptions of the kinetic-molecular theory
A substance that retains certain liquid properties even at temperatures at which it appears to be solid
The conversion of a liquid to a vapor within the liquid as well as at its surface; occurs when the equilibrium vapor pressure of the liquid equals the atmospheric pressure
A theory based on the idea that particles of matter are always in motion
Homogeneous; particles do not separate on standing; cannot be separated by filtration; particle size between .01-1nm; doesn't show Tyndall Effect
A compound with water molecules trapped inside
When water is the solvent
Particles do settle upon standing; heterogeneous; can be separated by filtration; particle size greater than 1000nm; does show Tyndall Effect
When two liquids do not dissolve in each other
What is the Tyndall Effect used for?
To distinguish between a solution and a colloid
A lot of the solute broke into ions
Amount of solute (moles)/volume of solution (liters)
When more solute could be dissolved at the given temperature
Exothermic or endothermic:
Energy is absorbed, therefore endothermic
A reaction accompanied by the absorption of heat
Exothermic or endothermic: putting solute particles in available spaces in solvent
Energy is released, therefore exothermic
How will an endothermic reaction feel to the touch?
A lot of solute
Pressure has its greatest effect on what solubility process?
Gases in liquids
How does temperature affect the solubility of a solid?
Increased temp= either increased or decreased solubility
How will an exothermic reaction feel to the touch?
What is dissolved?
Can be dissolved?
Liquid dispersed in a solid; ex. cheese or butter
Generally, how does increasing the temperature affect the solubility of a solid in a liquid?
Process to dissolve solute faster
The solubility of a gas in a liquid is directly proportional to the partial pressure of that gas on the surface of a liquid
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