82 terms

Science Unit 10

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Reproductive System
The system that enables a person to reproduce.
Sexual Reproduction
When two organisms of a species mate.
Diploid
46 chromosomes
Haploid
23 chromosomes
Meiosis
Cell reproduction where only half the number of chromosomes are produced.
Gamete
Human sex cells that contains half the number of chromosomes.
Chromosomes
Contains the DNA and genes that determines how you will look.
Oocyte/Egg
Female sex egg
Ovum
Once an egg is fertilized
Sperm
Male sex cell.
Male
smaller sperm
Male
XX
female
larger sperm
female
XY
Flagellum
The tail of the sperm that acts like a whip to propel the sperm.
Male Reproductive System
The main function of the male reproductive system is to produce and transport sperm to the female reproductive system.
Semen
Fluid produced by the male which contains the sperm.
Seminal Vesicle
Two glands located behind the bladder which secrete fluid that becomes part of the semen.
Prostate Gland
A walnut-sized gland located at the base of the urinary bladder. It surrounds the urethra.
Vas Deferens
The duct leading from the epididymis to the urethra.
Epididymis
The tubes located along the upper portion of the testes that connect the testes with the seminal ducts.
Urethra
The tube that connects to the seminal ducts which allows the semen and urine to leave the male's body through the penis.
Penis
The male sex organ that surrounds the urethra through which semen and urine leave the body.
Circumcision
An operation performed on boys to remove the foreskin and expose the tip of the penis.
Testes/Testicles
The two male reproductive glands that manufacture sperm cells and male sex hormones.
Scrotum
The pouch of skin behind the penis that contain the testes.
Female Reproductive System
The main task of the female reproductive system is to produce eggs for fertilization by the male, and if fertilized, incubates the developing fetus and deliverers the child into the world.
Ovaries
Two almond-shaped reproductive glands of the female. They produce egg cells and female sex hormones.
Fallopian Tubes
Tubes extending from the uterus to each ovary. They are connected to the uterus but not directly with the ovaries.
Uterus
The elastic muscular chamber where the ovum attaches itself. If the egg is fertilized this is where the baby develop within the mother before birth.
Uterus
The womb
Endometrium
The inner mucous membrane lining of the uterus. It provides nourishment for the fertilized egg of it shed in the egg is not fertilized.
Cervix
The neck or lower opening of the uterus which expands to allow the baby to leave the uterus to enter the birth canal and finally into the outer world.
Vagina
The passage from the uterus to the outside of a woman's body. The place where sperm are deposited by the penis of the male during sexual intercourse.
Vulva
The two pairs of lips that form the outside part of the female sex organs. Used for protection from bacteria and other substances from entering the vagina.
Menstrual Cycle
A female usually releases an egg at a time. Because of the function of reproduction system to produce a new offspring the egg is release only when the uterus is prepared to nourish it.
Ovulation
when an egg is release by an ovary.
Fertilization
The union of sperm and egg into one cell.
When does life begin?
At the moment when fertilization occur and the sperm and egg form one cell, human life begins
Zygote
A single celled fertilized egg.
Diploid Cell
A cell that contains the full number of chromosomes.
Foreskin
The cap of skin over the tip of the penis.
Haploid Cell
They contain half the number of chromosomes. This occurs during meiosis when the sex cells only produce 23 chromosomes each.
Cleavage
The process by which a fertilized egg becomes a many-celled embryo.
Morula
The mass of cells resulting from the cleavage of the ovum before the formation of the blastula.
Blastula
The early developmental stage following the morula stage consuming of a single spherical layer of cells enclosing a hollow central cavity.
Gastrula
The development stage following the blastula consisting of a cuplike body of two layers of cells.
Embryo
"To Swell"
Embryo
From the time the zygote attaches to the uterine wall until the end of the eight weeks of pregnancy.
Fetus
" Young One"
Fetus
The time between nine weeks and birth.
Fetal Health
Because the fetus receives nutrients from its mother, the fetus' growth and development depend on the food and water that the mother eats and drinks.
Embryology
The study of the early stages of growth of an organism.
Gestation Period
The time between fertilization and birth. In a human, this is 40 weeks. Also known as pregnancy.
Placenta
A large thin membrane which nourishes the fetus through the umbilical cord
Umbilical Cord
Connected to the fetus from the placenta.
Umbilical Cord
A rope-like structure that allows nourishment to be transported to the fetus from the mom
Water Breaking
The rupturing of the amniotic sac.
Contraction
A tightening of the muscles in the pelvic region. The first sign of labor.
Labor
Rhythmical muscular movements of the uterus as it forces the baby out through the birth canal.
After Birth
The expelling of the placenta and umbilical cord from the uterus through the birth canal a few minutes after delivery of the baby.
Cesarean Section Or C-Section:
If the baby can not be delivered through the birth canal doctors can perform the operation called a Cesarean Section.
Amniotic Sac
A fluid filled sac that surrounds the fetus.
Amniotic Fluid
The fluid contained in the amniotic sac that protects the fetus until birth.
Identical Twins
Come from the same egg and same sperm. They share the same placenta.
Fraternal Twins
Come from different eggs and different sperms.
Ectopic Pregnancy
The development the fertilized ovum outside the uterus, usually in the fallopian tube.
Gregor Johann Mendel
An Austrian Botanist and founder of the science of genetics.
Genetics
THe study of heredity or how the characteristics of living things are transmitted from one generation to the next.
Gene
The basic unit of heredity that has the genetic information for a certain trait contained in the chromosome.
Heredity
The passing of traits from the parent to offspring.
Dominant Gene
For a dominant gene trait to appear it only requires one factor to be present.
Recessive Gene
For a recessive gene trait to appear both factors need to be present.
Allele
The different forms of a gene.
Phenotype
How a trait appears.
Genotype
The two alleles that control the phenotype.
Symbols for Genotypes
Scientists use symbols to represent the alleles in a genotype.
Uppercase
represent dominant alleles
Lowercase
represent recessive alleles.
Homogeneous
When two alleles of a gene are the same.
Heterogeneous
When two alleles of a gene are different.
Punnet Square
A type of grid that can indicate all the possible outcomes of a genetic cross