TX Government Final Exam
Terms in this set (119)
Partisan polarization is when
Political parties become more distant from each other in terms of ideology
All of the following groups in Texas constitute the Democratic Party base in Texas EXCEPT
Both the Democratic and Republican parties hold ___________ elections every even year, for the purpose of nominating their party's candidates for statewide office
The Shivecrat movement was
A group of conservative Democrats in Texas who supported Eisenhower for president in 1952
The Republican Party became dominant in Texas in
Blue Dog Democrats were
Southern Democrats with conservative views
In a primary election
Voters select their party's candidate for the general election
Cities in Texas are solidly _______ while rural areas of the state are solidly ______
Officially Texas has a ______ primary
But in practice it is a _____ primary
The gubernatorial election is for which office?
Since 1994, every state-wide office has been held by a _________
The most costly items for political campaigns is
Suffrage is __________
The right to vote
The general election in Texas is held on the ____________ in even numbered years
First Tuesday in November
__________ is the process of redrawing election districts every 10 years in response to population changes
__________ is redrawing election district lines to give one political party an advantage electorally.
The Voting Rights Act of 1965
*Was a landmark piece of civil rights legislation
*Ensured that African Americans were not discriminated against when voting
*Was partly repealed by the Supreme Court in 2013
The qualifications to vote in the state of Texas today are
*Eighteen years of age
* U.S. Citizen
* Resident of Texas, and county, for at least 30 days
______ primaries were primary elections where only white voters could participate
Interest groups provide lawmakers with all of the following EXCEPT
Former legislators are often hired by interest groups to
*Benefit from their policy expertise
*Benefit from their "insider knowledge" of the legislature
*Gain greater access to current legislators
Texas Association of Realtors is which type of interest group
Important sources of information for legislators
The most powerful interest groups in Texas represent
PAC's are used to
*Stir up the public's interest
*Raise money from members and individuals
*Create media campaigns to influence the public and lawmakers
Interest groups have an advantage over individuals in influencing policy makers because they usually have
*Time to spend with lawmakers by hiring lobbyists
*More money to contribute to campaigns
*Greater knowledge and expertise on issues
Lobbyists ______ work directly for the interest group, they are _____________
Do not; third-party-contractors
Interest groups have two ways they attempt to effect both the public and lawmakers
Grassroots Lobbying & Direct Lobbying
Texas has a ____________ legislature, meaning it has two chambers.
The Texas legislature meets for ________ days, from January to May in ________ years.
A special legislative session can last no longer than _________ days
Every bill must be read ________ times in both chambers of the legislature.
In the Texas House, a bill must pass through the ____________ committee before it can be voted on by the full chamber.
The Texas House has __________ members, and the Texas Senate has __________ members.
The _______________________ is the most powerful position in the Texas House, with the ability to appoint all committee chairs, assign bills to committees, and call up bills for a vote on the House floor.
Speaker of the House
The _______________________ is the most powerful position in the Texas Senate, but the officeholder is not a Senator, instead they are elected state wide as a part of the plural executive.
Bills must pass both the House and Senate in the exact same form, because of this _________________ committees are created, which include both House and Senate members, to reach a compromise on a bill.
Texas House members serve a ________ year term, while Texas Senator serve a ________ year term.
The ability of the Lieutenant Governor and the Speaker of the House to control the final outcome of legislation (remember bathroom bill!) comes from their power to
Appoint members of conference committees
How is the Speaker of the House chosen?
By a majority of the party in power in the House
Texas elects the governor and all plural executive members in ______ years, meaning non-presidential years
The governor's power over the state budget lies with his ability to ____________________ the budget bill that he receives from the state legislature.
The governor's power over the state legislature lies in his ability to call a __________________.
A plural executive is when the executive branch is ______________ because the election of statewide officeholders is independent of the election of the governor.
The __________________________ is a member of the plural executive who serves as the state's chief lawyer. Any lawsuit involving the state of Texas is managed through this office.
The only appointed plural executive position is the ______________________________, whose primary responsibility is administering elections.
Secretary of State
The Texas Railroad Commission is responsible for regulating the __________________ industry.
Oil & Gas
The Texas Railroad Commission has _______ commissioners who are elected statewide to serve staggered ______ year terms.
The Texas Supreme Court is the highest _____________ court in the state.
______________ courts are the major trial courts in Texas, and usually have broad jurisdiction over both civil and criminal cases.
Municipal courts have the most limited jurisdiction, and only hear criminal cases that are considered _____________, and are punishable by fines only.
The branch of law that settles disputes between two or more individuals over relationships, obligations, and responsibilities is called _________________ law.
Criminal law is the branch of law that defines crimes and punishments for criminal acts, and the prosecution is always ____________________.
Decide whether the prosecution has a worthy case against an accused person
A criminal case in which the death penalty is a possible punishment is called?
All lawyers who legally practice in Texas must pass the ________________________.
State Bar Exam
Justices in both the Texas Supreme Court and the Texas Criminal Court of Appeals are elected to staggered _________ year terms.
Which of the following statute sets campaign contribution limits for judicial candidates in Texas?
Judicial Campaign Fairness Act
What is the purpose of government?
To protect life, liberty, and property
The four physical regions of Texas include?
Basin Province, Gulf Coast Plains, Interior Lowlands, Great Plains
Who was the first president of the Texas Republic?
Political scientist ________ created a classification scheme for state political cultures that is widely used.
The ______ political culture includes the belief that government is good and should be active in promoting the public good.
The three major metropolitan areas in Texas are?
Houston, Dallas-Fort Worth, San Antonio
How is the executive branch in the Texas Constitution set up differently than in the U.S. Constitution?
Texas has a plural executive
What are the key features of the 1836 Republic of Texas Constitution?
*President limited to single 3 year term
* Legalized slavery
* Prioritized homestead rights
How is the Texas Constitution amended?
Proposed by 2/3 of both houses of Texas legislature and a simple majority vote by the people
The division among three co-equal branches of government is called?
Separation of powers
From the years 1827 - 1876, how many different Constitutions did Texas have?
Article One of the Texas Constitution contains?
Bill of rights
The group of Republican congressmen who pushed through the adoption of the 13th,14th, and 15th Amendments, and extended the period of military occupation of the South following the Civil War were known as?
Latinos were not counted as a separate group in the U.S. census until what year?
The two landmark Supreme Court cases of 1954 that extended 14th Amendment protections to African Americans and Latino Americans were?
Brown v Board of Education, Hernandez v Texas
A state-imposed tax on voters that was eventually outlawed by the 24th Amendment was called a?
The period after the Civil War when the former Confederacy was under military occupation is known as?
The Texas Constitution requires that Texas judges____________________.
Be elected by the people
Harold Laswell said that politics is about _____ gets what, when, and how.
The Texas Constitution is the _____ longest of the 50 states.
A system of government in which power is divided between national and state governments
The Texas legislature meet biennially, this means?
Every other year
Dual Federalism is
Responsibilities between state and federal governments are strictly separated
Requirements that states pay for the cost of federal policies are called?
Marble cake federalism is also called _____ federalism
Which Amendment gives specific powers and duties to the states?
The equal protection clause of the 14th Amendment has been used to extend civil rights
To Americans in minority groups
The Supremacy Clause in Article VI of the U.S. Constitution states that
Federal laws and U.S. Supreme Court decisions are the supreme law of the land
The white settlers of Texas declared war on the Mexican government because
Mexico broke its social contract by changing the way its white citizens were treated
Limited government means?
A government whose powers are defined and limited by a constitution
Public attention focus on a public problem or issue. Officials' word and actions help focus attention.
Policy analysis inside and outside government determine whether the policy is addressing the problem and whether implementations is proceeding well.
They may recommend
in the agenda, in the formulation of policy or in its implementation.
Policy makers formally adopt a policy solution, usually in the form of legislation or rules.
Policy makers in the legislature and the bureaucracy lake up the issue. They create legislative, regulatory, or programmatic strategies to address the problem.
Government agencies begin the job of making the policy work by establishing procedures. writing guidance documents, or issuing grants-in-aid to other governments.
Public policy refers to the____(1)____ decisions that are intended to. ____(2)____ and improve the quality of life for citizens.
1) Actions taken by the government
2) Solve Problems
The policy agenda represents those problems to which the public and policymakers are paying
___________________________ at any given time.
Items get on the policy agenda through various levels of government:
1. Within state government: ____(1)____ and governor emergency items
2. Outside government: Interest groups and lobbyists and ____(2)____
3. Trickle down from the federal government: Federal mandates and laws
1) Influential Legislators
2) Media Attention
Policy formulation is the stage of the process where the legislature and/or bureaucratic agencies work to_____________________________ to the issue or problem.
Relies heavily on the _______________________, specifically committees.
Once a policy has been formulated, policymakers must ____________________________ on adoption of the policy, meaning they decide if the proposed solution(s) will address the issue.
Reach an agreement
Multiple challenges to adoption:
o Institutional complexities of law-making in the legislature
o _______________________________________________ among politicians
Through the process known as implementation, government agencies _________________________________ as expressed by a legislative act, rule, regulation, or legal decision.
Carry out the policy
Executive branch responsible for executing (carrying out) laws, therefore implementation falls on _____________________________.
Analysts inside and outside of government assess if the policy _______________________________________ and if implementation is proceeding effectively.
Address the problem
Evaluation weighs or assesses:
o Inputs: ___________________________ invested, including money spent and information contributed
Evaluation weighs or assesses:
o Outputs: _________________________ passed and programs designed to address the problem
Evaluation weighs or assesses:
o Outcomes: ________________________ of the laws and programs
Texas has _______________________ graduation rates (US: 81% and Texas: 88%).
Higher than average
But graduation rates vary among ethnic groups - are ______________ students. Limited English proficiency students have lowest drop-out rates overall.
Lowest among African- American and Hispanic
And Texas students are not ready for college - Texas ranks __________________for SAT scores.
Texas uses standardized testing. Critics say the STAAR assessment system is too onerous and complex - ___________________________ and imposes too many hurdles to high school graduation.
Impedes the instructional process
In 2014 Texas spent $8,998 per student - _______________________________ than the national average.
__________________________ funding is the biggest source of education support.
Local funding comes from property taxes, which is controversial because some districts have higher property
values, and therefore, ________________________ education funding.
From 2008-2013 Texas cut higher education spending by _______________ but tuition increased by 17.8%.
Most basic curriculum is set by the __________________.
State Board of Education
State Board of Education is under the Commissioner of Education,
which is appointed by the governor.
State Board of Education includes _________________ in partisan elections.
In 2010 the State Board of Education was criticized as hijacking state education to promote a ________________________, including changes to science standards to remove reference to evolution and social studies to promote historical Christian figures.
Conservative, Christian agenda