History 1152 Final Review
Terms in this set (63)
"Bank Holiday" (1933)
Banks regulated by the federal reserve will be temporarily shut down for 10 days, restored partial trust in banks.
Agricultural Adjustment Administration
reduced the supply of agricultural goods, govt. paid farmers to underplant so the demand would increase.
Dust Bowl (1930's)
The soil had been depleted, ecological destruction from moving out West.
The geographic area, including the Texas panhandle, hardest hit by the drought during the 1930's where the soil was so dry it blew away in great clouds of dust
National Recovery Administration (1933)
public standards and codes for all businesses, set minimum wage, max work hours, eliminated child labor.
Designed to assist industry, labor and the unemployed. Businesses that agreed to the NRA would cooperate with other industries to create industry-wide codes for minimum wages and maximum hours. Workers were given the right to unionize. Supreme Court declared it unconstitutional.
Civilian Conservation Corps (1933 - 1942)
mostly young men eager to work on conservation projects put millions to work.
provided employment in fresh- air government camps for about 3 million uniformed young men. They reforested areas, fought fires, drained swamps, controlled floods etc
"Double V" Campaign (1940's)
NAACP, victory overseas and home, ending racism there and here. Approaching Civil Rights and trying to change public opinion before MLK.
Taft-Hartley Act (1947)
Weakened protections for Unions, made closed shop illegal
- The Act made illegal a close shop wich was a workplace in which no one can be hired without first being a member of a union.- It permitted states to pass "right-to- work" laws prohibiting even that.
- Trumman vetoed it.
-Both houses overruled him the same day.
National Security Act of 1947
Reshaped military institutions, created Dept. of Defense, military industrial complex, created CIA.
-reorganized the military
-Established: DOD, SOD, JCOF, AF, CIA, and NSC
-reduced inter-service rivalry
-based on lessons learned from WWII
"long telegram" (1946)
Explains Russian expansionism and ideologies, promotes containment to U.S.
(1946) America saw Soviet expansion as an increasing threat, and thus began the policy of containment. George Kennan, a diplomatic advisor, sent the Long Telegram from his post in Moscow to his superiors in Washington, warning that the Soviet Union was moving "inexorable along the prescribed path." The United States had to stop Soviet expansion of communism; Kennan argued that the US should pursue a policy of "firm containment...at every point where Russians show signs of encroaching upon the interests of a peaceful and stable world."
Battle of Leyte Gulf (1944)
Largest naval battle, some look at it as 3 battles.
1. 23-26 October 1944
2. Largest battle in naval history, US v Japan
-Both fleets are huge
-U.S. loses 3,500 sailors, 1 light aircraft carrier, 2 escort carriers, 3 destroyers sunk
-Japan loses 10,000 sailors, 4 aircraft carriers, 3 battleships, 8 cruisers, 12 destroyers sunk
3. Japan loses and its fleet is crippled, first use of the Kamikaze
G.I. Bill (1944)
Passed on economic rights, education and benefits for veterans.
The G. I. Bill of Rights or Servicemen's Readjustment Act of 1944 provided for college or vocational education for returning World War II veterans (commonly referred to as GIs or G. I.s) as well as one-year of unemployment compensation. It also provided loans for returning veterans to buy homes and start businesses.
Rosie the Riveter (1940's)
Publicizing women in the workplace.
Rosie the Riveter
A propaganda character designed to increase production of female workers in the factories. It became a rallying symbol for women to do their part.
What: Rosie the Riveter represented the women working in factories, with the men at war, during World War II who helped to supply the front lines with military supplies. Rosie inspired women to take jobs and help supply the front lines.
Where: The United States of America, Europe
When: World War II
Why: Rosie helped encourage women to work in factories and provide military supplies to the Allies who needed the arms.
Smith-Connally War Labor Disputes Act
Allows President to take over a plant where a strike has occurred to make sure it still produces essentials to the war effort.
allowed the federal government to seize and operate industries threatened by or under strikes that would interfere with war production (in World War II)
Fair Employment Practices Commission
FDR issued this committee in 1941 to enforce the policy of prohibiting employment-related discrimination practices by federal agencies, unions, and companies involved in war-related work It guaranteed the employment of 2 million black workers in the war factories.
Office of War Mobilization (1943)
Served as an agency of the centralization of resources during the war, head of this office was James F. Byrnes
Set production priorities and controlled raw materials. Cost-plus system... the cost of production plus a certain percentage of profit goes to the contractors.
Atlantic Charter (1941)
Joint Declaration, statement of wartime goals, any American interference would be for only certain goals.
1941, outlined a vision in which a world would abandon their traditional beliefs in military alliances and spheres of influence and govern their relations with one another though democratic process, with an international organization serving as the arbiter of disputes and the protector of every nation's right of self determination.
Pearl Harbor (1941)
Japanese attack US Pacific fleet, substantial losses, drags us into war and we froze Japanese assets.
The Japanese naval air force made a surprise attack on the U.S. naval base in this place in Hawaii on December 7th, 1941. Several battleships of the U.S. Pacific fleet were damaged or sunk. This attack resulted in an Amercian declaration of war the following day. Canada also declared war on Japan. Canadian soldiers in Hong Kong were soon fighting as the Japanese attacked the British colony the same day as this.
Social Security Act (1935)
old age insurance, monthly pension for retirees. Unemployed and disabled as well.
Social Security Act of 1935 created a federal insurance program based on the automatic collection of taxes from employees and employers throughout people's working careers. They would receive this money in a monthly pension when they reached the age of 65. The unemployed, disabled, and mothers with dependent children would also receive this money.
Neutrality Acts (1935 - 1939)
restrictions on trading war goods and non-war goods. Cash and Carry system, pay in cash and buyer must transport it by themselves.
Prohibit sale of munitions to warring nations, prohibited Americans to ride on ships of warring nations, allowed the president to implement the "cash and carry" style of trade. Proved to be shortsighted which led to its relaxation.
Manhattan Project (1942 - 1945).
Originated because of reports of Germany making a nuclear bomb. The US trying to beat them to the punch
Who: Albert Einstein, Leslie Groves
What: The Manhattan Project was a secret project undertaken by the US military to develop an atomic bomb that could force Germany and Japan into surrender.
Where: Europe, Americas, Asia
When: World War II-Present Day
Why: The Manhattan Project yielded the world's first nuclear bomb, which ultimately won the war for the Allies and launched the US and the USSR into the Cold war.
Burke-Wadsworth Act (1940)
created the first peace-time draft in United States history. Both the Congress and the president were concerned with the military expansion of Germany, Japan, and Italy. By implementing a draft, the United States government would be better prepared if the nation became involved in the military conflicts raging in other parts of the world.
Battle of Midway (1942)
The turning point in the war, Japanese took more losses and lost their air superiority.
who: President Franklin Delano Roosevelt
What: The Battle of Midway was a crucial turning point in the Pacific theater in World War II, in it the US defended the important island of Midway, and sunk four Japanese aircraft carriers and one heavy cruiser, at the cost of one American aircraft carrier and one destroyer. The Japanese planned to ambush the US, but the message was decrypted by the US and the US set its own trap.
Where: The United States of America, Japan, Asia
When: World War II
Why: The Battle of Midway changed the tide of war in the Pacific theater, and was incredibly important to the United states beating the Japanese army.
6 months of fighting, marines had to take fueling station. Japanese surprised us with their ferocity.
first major offensive launched by Allied forces against the Empire of Japan; Allies overwhelmed the outnumbered Japanese defenders --> allies won
Where a struggle of terrible ferocity developed and continued for six months, inflicting heavy losses on both sides. In the end, however, the Japanese were forced to abandon the island-and with it their last chance of launching an effective offensive to the south.
"Roosevelt Recession" (1937)
1937 economic downturn caused by sound fiscal policy due to cut spending and higher taxes
This financial crisis had impacted the economy in 1937 and 1938 due to the fact that President Roosevelt had decided to "pull back" on government spending. Reluctantly, FDR initiated an increase in spending on public works projects and other programs, which almost magically increased investment and employment
Debt-Deflation Cycle (1929-1930's)
There is less credit going around with amassing debt
Stock market crashes
Businesses lose demand so workers get laid off
Consumers have less spending power
Banks get overly cautious
Lots of debt, little credit
Smoot-Hawley Tariff (1930)
Higher tax on foreign goods, meant to protect the American businesses Backfires because other markets put tax on our goods
The Hawley-Smoot Tariff wast enacted in 1930. This treaty raised tariffs on many imported goods. Many American trading partners retaliated in response to this tariff. The Hawley-Smoot Tariff might have even worsened the Great Depression.
Little shacks that people lived in Meant to insult Hoover
many families lost their homes because they could not pay their mortgages. These people had no choice but to seek alternative forms of shelter. Hoovervilles, named after President Hoover, who was blamed for the problems that led to the depression, sprung up throughout the United States.
Bonus Army (1932)
Veterans of WWI marched on Washington demanding their bonus pays early. Army called in to solve unrest. People worried about political and social instability
A group of almost 20,000 World War I veterans who were hard-hit victims of the depression, who wanted what the government owed them for their services and "saving" democracy. They marched to Washington and set up public camps and erected shacks on vacant lots. They tried to intimidate Congress into paying them, but Hoover had them removed by the army, which shed a negative light on Hoover.
June 6, 1944 - Led by Eisenhower, over a million troops (the largest invasion force in history) stormed the beaches at Normandy and began the process of re-taking France. The turning point of World War II.
The largest land/sea/air invasion in history.
US troops hit beachheads code-named Omaha and Utah.
Allied troops nearly forced all German forces out of Normandy within a week.
What: D-Day was the storming of Normandy Beach by the Allied militaries, though it was a costly battle (in terms of casualties) the allies won and started the long march to victory in Europe. It was a turning point in the war and lead to the Allies winning the war.
Where: Europe, Asia, Americas
When: World War II
Why: D-Day symbolized a turning point in the war, as the allies started on the home stretch towards victory against Germany.
Battle of the Bulge (1944)
After recapturing France, the Allied advance became stalled along the German border. In the winter of 1944, Germany staged a massive counterattack in Belgium and Luxembourg which pushed a 30-mile "bulge" into the Allied lines. The Allies stopped the German advance and threw them back across the Rhine with heavy losses.
In December of 1944 Hitler launched a huge counter-offensive on the western front.
His forced tried to force back the Allied troops in the Ardennes Forest.
It was named the Battle of the Bulge after the huge bulge in the allied line as Hitler's forces advanced.
What: The Battle of the Bulge was the last ditch effort by Nazi Germany to fend off the Allied offensive towards their country. Though it was effective at first, the German offensive collapsed as the people were exhausted and ran out of supplies.
Where: Europe, Asia, Americas
When: World War II
Why: The ultimate failure of the Battle of the Bulge lead to the collapse of the German military and the Germans losing the war.
V-E Day (1945)
May 8, 1945; victory in Europe Day when the Germans surrendered.
Apr 30, 1945 - Hitler Suicide
"Victory in Europe Day" on which General Eisenhower's acceptance of the unconditional surrender of Nazi Germany marked the end of WWII in Europe
in World War II, a Japanese suicide pilot who crashed his plane into an American ship
Japanese suicide pilots who sank Allied ships by crashing into them
Japanese suicide pilots who loaded their planes with explosives and crashed them into American ships. Demonstrated the Japanese mindset of never surrendering.
On August 6, 1945, the US dropped the atomic bomb Little Boy on Hiroshima and then 3 days later, the atomic bomb Fat Man was dropped on Nagasaki.
1945 - Hiroshima: August 6 / Nagasaki: August 9
2 cities in Japan where President Truman decided to drop atomic bombs on
Flattened the cities and completely devastated the area
Led to Japan's surrender and the post war non nuclear principles.
Hiroshima was hit first
Hit after Japan refused to surrender and accept Potsdam Declaration
Truman Doctrine (1947)
Truman Doctrine was the United States' pledge to fight the spread of communism at all costs.
The Economic Costs of Truman Doctrine was $400 million to fight Communism in Greece and Turkey. It represents the central idea of US foreign policy during the cold war.
Marshall Plan (1947)
George Marshall, a former World War II general, who became secretary of state under President Truman. He was the originator of the concept of the Marshall Plan to provide aid to reconstruct Western Europe in 1947. It was a massive transfer of aid money to help rebuild postwar Western Europe, intended to bolster capitalist and democratic governments and prevent domestic communist groups from riding poverty and misery to power; was first announced by Secretary of State George Marshall in 1947
Berlin Airlift (1948)
The successful effort by the United States and Britain to ship by air 2.3 million tons of supplies to the residents of the Western-controlled sectors of Berlin from June 1948 to May 1949, in response to a Soviet blockade of all land and canal routes to the divided city.
North Atlantic Treaty Organization (1949)
Mutual defense pact among United States, Canada, and ten Western European allies
military alliance of Western European powers and the United States and Canada established to defend against the common threat from the Soviet Union, marking a giant stride forward for European unity and American internationalism
Federal Employee Loyalty Program (1947)
Issued by Pres. Truman in March 1974 started because strongly anti-Communist Republicans began to accuse Truman of being soft on communism this included the loyalty review board: purpose was to investigate government employees and to dismiss those were found to be disloyal to the US government individuals under investigation were not allowed to see the evidence against them
House Un-American Activities Committee
investigative committees of the US to investigate those unloyal or those performing subversive acts
(Senator Joseph McCarthy)
loyalty oath (proposed by Clark Kerr; many Berkeley faculty dismissed)
Oppenheimer Affair (1954) --alleged to be a communist and security clearance was revoked
Alger Hiss / Whittaker Chambers (1948)
Alger Hiss was a former State Department official who was accused of being a Communist spy (giving classified documents to the Soviets) and was convicted of perjury. The case was prosecuted by Richard Nixon. Whittaker Chambers was an editor and former Communist who accused Alger Hiss (State Dept. during FDR days) of giving govt. secrets to Russians, convicted of perjury.
McCarthyism (late 1940's and 1950's)
The term associated with Senator Joseph McCarthy who led the search for communists in America during the early 1950s through his leadership in the House Un-American Activities Committee. It also became a synonym for public charges of disloyalty without sufficient regard for evidence
Battle of Inchon (1950)
The U.N. and U.S. forces joined to defend South Korea. General MacArthur's Inchon invasion turned the war in our favor, but as we neared their border the Chinese sent human wave attacks against our troops. After a long stalemate the 38th parallel was established as a boundary. The landing of UN troops, by General Douglas MacArthur, behind enemy lines at Inchon in Korea. In order to push back the North Korean troops.
Federal Highway Act (1956)
This was the largest public works project in the United States history; Eisenhower signed the law, which built over 40,000 miles of highways in the United States and created the interstate highway system to create routes for moving military supplies and for emergency evacuation in case of nuclear attack.
First artificial Earth satellite, it was launched by Moscow in 1957 and sparked U.S. fears of Soviet dominance in technology and outer space. It led to the creation of NASA and the space race to the man on the moon.
Army-McCarthy hearings (1954)
The Trials in which Senator McCarthey accused the U.S. Army of harboring possible communists.These trials were one of the first televised trials in America and helped show America Senator McCarthey's irresponsibility and meanness.
Invasion of the Body Snatchers (1956)
1956; a movie about Pod people represent communist party and many people are personified (people being accused) an allegory of the red scare.
The Invasion of the Body Snatchers is about A small-town doctor learns that the population of his community is being replaced by emotionless alien duplicates.
New Look (1953 - 1961)
"New Look" Foreign Policy
Eisenhower FP that emphasized reliance on strategic nuclear weapons to deter potential threats, both conventional and nuclear, from the Eastern Bloc of nations headed by the Soviet Union
New look continued:
psych warfare-standard propaganda, stimulate resistance, alliances (pay attention): US rely more on own allies, strengthen NATO, created SEATO-rejected E's ambition to create worldwide liberal alliances, money to poor allies army, take pressure off US forces, train their officers
covert operations: expand the CIA
"Domino Theory" (1950's and 1960's)
Theory that if one country in a region came under the influence of communism, the surrounding countries would follow
Initially used to justify giving a lot of aid to South Vietnam, this theory was devised by Eisenhower. It stated that if South Vietnam fell under Communist control, one nation after another in Southeast Asia would also fall, until Australia and New Zealand were in danger. Thus, the U.S had to do anything in order to keep South Vietnam from going to Communist rule.
Brown v. Board of Education (1954)
1954 - The Supreme Court overruled Plessy v. Ferguson, declared that racially segregated facilities are inherently unequal and ordered all public schools desegregated.
1954 supreme court ruling reversing the policy of segregation, declaring that seperate can never be equal and a year later ordered the integration of all public schools with all deliberate speed society became less racist
"Little Rock Nine" (1957)
In September 1957 the school board in Little rock, Arkansas, won a court order to admit nine African American students to Central High a school with 2,000 white students. The governor ordered troops from Arkansas National Guard to prevent the nine from entering the school. The next day as the National Guard troops surrounded the school, an angry white mob joined the troops to protest the integration plan and to intimidate the AA students trying to register. The mob violence pushed Eisenhower's patience to the breaking point. He immediately ordered the US Army to send troops to Little Rock to protect and escort them for the full school year
Montgomery Bus Boycott (1955 - 1956)
In 1955, after Rosa Parks was arrested for refusing to give up her seat on a city bus, Dr. Martin L. King led a boycott of city buses. After 11 months the Supreme Court ruled that segregation of public transportation was illegal.
Southern Christian Leadership Conference
(1950's and (1960's)
An organization founded by MLK Jr., to direct the crusade against segregation. Its weapon was passive resistance that stressed nonviolence and love, and its tactic direct, though peaceful, confrontation.
"New Frontier" (1961 - 1963)
The campaign program advocated by JFK in the 1960 election. He promised to revitalize the stagnant economy and enact reform legislation in education, health care, and civil rights.
"Flexible Response" (1961 - 1969)
the buildup of conventional troops and weapons to allow a nation to fight a limited war without using nuclear weapons
Peace Corps (1961)
(JFK) , volunteers who help third world nations and prevent the spread of communism by getting rid of poverty, Africa, Asia, and Latin America
Bay of Pigs (1961)
In April 1961, a group of Cuban exiles organized and supported by the U.S. Central Intelligence Agency landed on the southern coast of Cuba in an effort to overthrow Fidel Castro. When the invasion ended in disaster, President Kennedy took full responsibility for the failure.
Berlin Wall (1961 - 1989)
A wall separating East and West Berlin built by East Germany in 1961 to keep citizens from escaping to the West
Cuban Missile Crisis (1962)
an international crisis in October 1962, the closest approach to nuclear war at any time between the U.S. and the USSR. When the U.S. discovered Soviet nuclear missiles on Cuba, President John F. Kennedy demanded their removal and announced a naval blockade of the island; the Soviet leader Khrushchev acceded to the U.S. demands a week later.
Student Nonviolent Coordinating
students whose purpose was coordinate a nonviolent attack on segregation and other forms of racism
Freedom Rides (1961)
organized mixed-race groups who rode interstate buses deep into the South to draw attention to and protest racial segregation, beginning in 1961. This effort by northern young people to challenge racism proved a political and public relations success for the Civil Rights Movement
James Meredith (1933 - present)
in 1962 became the first black American to attend the Univesity of Mississippi after being blocked several times by segregationist politicians. An icon of the Civil Rights Movement, Meredith receded from public view following his brace steps toward educational integration
March on Washington (1963)
massive civil rights demonstration in August 1963 in support of Kennedy-backed legislation to secure legal protections for American blacks. One of the most visually impressive manifestations of the Civil Rights Movement, it was the occasion of Martin Luther King's famous "I Have a Dream" speech
Warren Commission (1964)
The commission that decided that Lee Harvey Oswald (assassinator of Kennedy) was the lone assassin...following both the death of Kennedy and two days later the death of the assassin.
Commission made by LBJ after killing of John F. Kennedy. (Point is to investigate if someone paid for the assassination of Kennedy.) The conclusion is that Oswald killed Kennedy on his own. Commissioner is Chief Justice Warren.