The settlement founded in the early 1600's that was the most important for the future of the US was
England's defeat of the Spanish Armada
helped to ensure England's naval dominance in the North Atlantic
The financial means for England's first permanent colonization in America were provided by
a joint-stock company
The early years at Jamestown were mainly characterized by
starvation, disease, and frequent Indian raids
Despite an abundance of fish and game, early Jamestown settlers continued to starve because
they were unaccustomed to fend for themselves and wasted time looking for gold
Chief Powhatan had Captain John Smith kidnapped in order to
impress Smith with his power and show the Indian's desire for peace
When Lord de La Warr took control of Jamestown in 1610, he
imposed a harsh military regime on the colony
The cultivation of tobacco in Jamestown resulted in all of the following except
a great demand for controlled labor
A major reason for the founding of the Maryland colony in 1634 was to
Create a refuge for the Catholics
Some Africans became especially valuable as slaves in the Carolinas because they
were experienced in rice cultivation
North America in 1600 was largely unclaimed, though the Spanish had much control in ________________________.
Central and South America.
Spain had only set up __________, while France had founded ___________ and Britain had founded _____________.
King Henry VIII broke with the Roman Catholic Church in the 1530s and launched the ____________________.
English Protestant Reformation
After _____________ pirated Spanish ships for gold then circumnavigated the globe, Elizabeth I knighted him on his ship. Obviously, this reward angered the Spanish who sought revenge.
Meanwhile, English attempts at colonization in the New World failed embarrassingly. Notable of these failures was _____________ and the _________________, better known as "The Lost Colony."
Sir Walter Raleigh/Roanoke Island Colony
Victory over the Spanish Armada also fueled England to new heights due to...
-Strong government/popular monarch, more religious unity, a sense of nationalism
-Golden age of literature (Shakespeare)
-Beginning of British dominance at sea (which lasts until U.S. tops them, around 1900)
-Britain and Spain finally signed a peace treaty in 1604.
Tradition of primogeniture
1st born son inherits
ALL father's land. Therefore, younger sons of rich folk (who couldn't
inherit money) tried their luck with fortunes elsewhere, like America.
By the 1600s, the _____________ was perfected (investors put money into the company with hopes for a good return), being a forerunner of today's corporations.
On May 24, 1607, ________________________
about 100 English settlers disembarked from their ship and founded Jamestown.
Problems at Jamestown that emerged include
-the swampy site of Jamestown meant
poor drinking water and mosquitoes causing malaria and yellow fever.
-men wasted time looking for gold rather than doing useful tasks
(digging wells, building shelter, planting crops),
-there were zero women on the initial ship.
John Smith's main contribution was that he gave order and discipline, highlighted by his ____________________.
"no work, no food" policy
The First Anglo-Powhatan War ended
in 1614 with a peace settlement sealed by the marriage of Pocahontas to colonist John Rolfe. Rolfe & Pocahontas nurtured a favorable flavor of sweet tobacco.
The Second Anglo-Powhatan War began
in 1644, ended in 1646, and effectively banished the Chesapeake Indians from their ancestral lands.
Maryland's statute, the Act of Toleration,
guaranteed religious toleration to all Christians, but decreed the
death penalty to Jews and atheists and others who didn't believe in the divinity of Jesus Christ.
As the British were colonizing Virginia, they ________________________________________________.
were also settling into the West Indies (Spain's declining power opened the door).
By mid-1600s, England had secured claim to several West Indies islands, including ____________________.
Jamaica in 1655.
Carolina flourished by developing close economic ties ________
with the West Indies, due to the port of Charleston.
African slaves were hired to work on rice plantations, due to ___________________.
(a)their resistance to malaria and just as importantly,
(b) their familiarity with rice.
Many newcomers to Carolina were __________________________.
"squatters," people who owned no land, usually down from Virginia.
Two "flavors" of Carolinians developed:
(a) aristocratic and wealthier down south around Charleston and rice & indigo plantations, and
(b) strong-willed and independent-minded up north on small tobacco farms
In 1711, when Tuscarora Indians attacked North Carolina, the
Carolinians responded by _____________________
crushing the opposition, selling hundreds to
slavery and leaving the rest to wander north, eventually becoming the
Sixth Nation of the Iroquois.
Georgia was intended to be a ____________________
buffer between the British colonies
and the hostile Spanish settlements in Florida (Spanish, Indians,
runaway slaves) and the enemy French in Louisiana.
James Oglethorpe, the ablest of the founders and a dynamic soldier-statesman,_____________________________________________________________.
Repelled Spanish attacks.
* He saved "the Charity Colony" by his energetic leadership and by using his own fortune to help with the colony.
All Christians, except Catholics, enjoyed_____
-Religious toleration, and many missionaries came to try to convert the Indians.
-John Wesley was one of them, and he later returned to England and founded Methodism.
The establishment of schools and churches was difficult due to ________________________.
people being spread out.
In the South, the crops were ___________________
tobacco and rice, and some indigo in the tidewater region of SC.
Settlers created the House of Burgesses, a committee to work out local issues. This set America on a self-rule pathway.
The first African Americans to arrive in America also came in 1619