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History test ch 19
Terms in this set (65)
Since the 1800s, Vietnam was a ___ colony
Who seized control over Vietnam during WW2?
Who is Ho Chi Minh?
a communist revolutionary leader who wanted independence from Japanese rule and formed "Vietminh"
What are Vietminh?
Northern Vietnam freedom fighters
Who helped Ho Chi Minh gain independence from Japan?
While Minh briefly controlled Vietnam, what kind of country was it?
Who did the US support during the Indochina War? Why?
France to defeat Minh/communism
How did President Truman view Ho Chi Minh? Why?
as a part of China because he was communist
Who won the Indochina War?
Ho Chi Minh led the Vietminh to victory and compromised with the French in a treaty
Where was Vietnam divided?
at the 17th parallel
Who ruled North Vietnam? What was the capital?
Ho Chi Minh (communist); Hanoi
Who ruled South Vietnam? What was the capital?
Ngo Dinh Diem (democracy); Saigon
Who did the US support after the treaty between the French and Ho Chi Minh?
Diem (South Vietnam)
What did the treaty of the Indochina war say?
there were elections held for one National President
What did Diem (and the US) do about the Vietnam elections?
didn't allow them because he feared he would lose; the US worked secretly to establish Diem (which is hypocritical because we are a democracy!)
Why was US involved with Vietnam in the first place? (remember it is the height of Cold War/communism)
1. containment theory - do anything to keep communism where it is and to not let it spread anywhere
2. domino theory - if one country falls, then another will, then another, and eventually the US will be overtaken
Although Diem promised democratic reforms, what did he do?
he became a dictator and jailed and killed those who opposed him (especially Buddhists)
After Diem drastically changed, what was created?
What is the Vietcong?
a militant group in the south who hated Diem and favored communist Ho
Why does the US get more involved in Vietnam?
Diem loses popularity and Vietcong gains strength
How does the US get more involved?
JFK sends "non-combat" advisors to aid Diem's government; JFK slowly sends more and more advisors over
Does sending the advisors help?
No! 100 end up dead and Diem is overthrown by military coup
20 days after Diem is overthrown, who is assassinated?
JFK so LBJ takes over
Who apparently started the Gulf of Tonkin incident?
A US destroyer who supposedly fired on North Vietnamese but the US claim otherwise
What is the Gulf of Tonkin Resolution?
LBJ is given a "blank check" which allows him to send troops to fight without a declaration of war
Who was an ally of the US that appeared during the Gulf of Tonkin incident?
ARVN (non-communist force in South Vietnam)
What is the Ho Chi Minh trail?
a route used by Vietminh to infiltrate South Vietnam and fight US and ARVN forces
Was the Ho Chi Minh trail only in Vietnam?
no it crossed Cambodia and Laos
Why did the Ho Chi Minh trail force the US to send more troops?
they were being ambushed because they could not see the North Vietnamese coming in since they entered from different countries
What type of warfare did the N Vietnamese use?
What is guerilla warfare?
surprise attacks, land mines, booby traps, hit and run
Why were the N Vietnamese called an army of moles?
because they dug huge tunnels under the ground
What was a defining characteristic in North Vietnam?
Nationalism which gave them a lot of determination
Why did so many civilians die in the Vietnam war?
because the Vietcong and South Vietnamese looked so much alike
Who led the US troops?
What was the US strategy for the war?
kill so many that they lose the will and ability to fight - by using superiority in numbers (search and destroy)
What type of transport was crucial for the US?
The Vietnam War was the first _______ War
What does the year of 1968 stand for?
the year of crisis
what is TET?
the Vietnamese New Year and it has an unspoken rule that no war could happen during it
What is the TET offensive?
-the communists launched a major attack on over 100 South Vietnam cities
-US embassies were taken over for a short amount of time
Why did the TET offensive shock so many Americans?
it was the first event of the war that showed that everything was not under control
What happened three months after the TET offensive?
US finally regained all cities and pushed Vietcong back
After the TET offensive, what exploded?
disagreement over the war
Who are Hawks?
Americans who supported US involvement in the war but criticized LBJ for fighting a limited war
Who are Doves?
Americans who opposed US involvement and criticized LBJ for intervening in a Vietnamese civil war
Who led the Anti-war movement?
many young people and college students who led rallies and marches
What did young men do with their draft cards during the anti-war movement?
Did LBJ run for re-election?
Who was elected as president after LBJ? What did he promote?
Nixon; peace at home and abroad (Vietnamization)
What is Vietnamization?
the build up of ARVN forces while slowly withdrawing US forces
Did Nixon want to give South Vietnam up to the Communists?
No, he still wanted it to be "anti-commie"
What expanded the war?
US bombings in Cambodia
What event created skepticism aimed at the government?
Nixon never told the public about the Cambodia bombings or about the "My Lai Massacre"
What is the My Lai Massacre?
troops were fed up with not knowing who the real enemy was so they ruthlessly killed hundreds of civilians out of revenge
In order to end the war, who did the US bomb?
Hanoi (North Vietnam's capital); it was the most intense bombing of the war
Was Nixon re-elected?
yes because he announces US trop withdrawal
After US troops leave Vietnam, what happens to the Southern troops?
they steadily lose ground and being to lose the civil war
Who launches the final major offensive?
What was the final major offensive?
the North Vietnamese over-run Saigon and the Americans who stayed in the embassies are forced to evacuate quickly
When does the Saigon government announce surrender?
Today, Vietnam is one united _____ country
How many Americans were killed in the Vietnam war?
When the US troops returned, were they greeted with respect?
no, they had no support nor recognition
After the war, there was an increase of _____ aimed towards the government
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