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Unit 3 Terms
Terms in this set (50)
A term to describe the network of trade that linked parts of the pre-Columbian Americas; although less intense and complete than the Afro-Eurasian trade networks, this web nonetheless provided a means of exchange for luxury goods and ideas over large areas.
The largest Buddhist monument ever built, Borobudur is a mountainous ten-level monument with an elaborate carving program, probably built in the ninth century C.E. by the Sailendras rulers of central Java; it is an outstanding example of cultural exchange and syncretism.
the name given to the massive epidemic that swept Eurasia in the fouteenth century C.E.; it may have been bubonic plague, anthrax, or a collection of other epidemic diseases.
Ghana, Mali, Sonhay
A series of important states that developed in western and central Sudan in the period 500 - 1600 CE in response to the economic opportunities of trans-Saharan trade (especially control of gold production).
a highly fata disease transmitted by fleas; it devestated the Mediterranean world between 534 to 750 C.E. and again in the period 1346-1350.
Indian Ocean Trading Network
The world's largest sea based system of communication and exchange before 1500 CE, Indian Ocean commerce stretched from southern China to eastern Africa and included not only the exchange of luxury and bulk goods but also the exchange of ideas and crops.
a powerful state in the African interior that apparently emerged form the growing trade in gold to the East African coast; flourished between 1250 and 1350 C.E.
a famous Muslim traveler who visited much of the Islamic world in the fourteenth century and wrote a major account of what he saw.
professional merchants among the Aztecs.
a term used to describe the routes of the trans-Sahara trade in Africa.
land based trade routes that linked Eurasia
a Malay kingdom that dominated the straights of Malacca between 670 and 1250 C.E.; noted for its creation of native/ Indian hybrid culture.
an east African civilization that emerged in the eighth century C.E. from a blending of Bantu, Islamic, and other Indian Ocean trade elements.
trans-Saharan Slave Trade
A fairly small-scale trade that developed in the twelfth century C.E. exporting West African slaves captured in raids across the Sahara for sale mostly as household servants in Islamic North Africa; the difficulty of travel across the desert limited the scope of this trade.
"the way of the warrior", referring to the military virtues of the Japanese samurai including bravery, loyalty, and an emphasis on death over surrender.
Buddhism was China's only large-scale borrowing before the twentieth century; Buddhism entered China from India in the first and second centuries CE but only became popular in the 300 - 800 CE through a series of cultural accommodations. At first supported by the state, Buddhism suffered persecution during the ninth century but continued to play a role in Chinese society
a variation of Chinese writing developed in Vietnam that became the basis for an independent national literature; "southern script".
a Chinese practice of tightly wrapping girls' feet to keep them small, begun in the Tang dynasty; and emphasis on small size and delicacy was central to views of female beauty.
a phonetic alphabet developed in Korea during the fifteenth century C.E.
China's capital during the Song dynasty with a population with more than a million space
A nomadic people who established a state that included parts of northern China (115-1234)
A nomadic people who established a state that included parts of northern China (907-1125)
Japanese statesman (572-622) who launched the drive to make Japan into a centralized bureaucratic state modeled on China; He is best known for the Seventeen Article Constitution, which that lays out the principles of this reform
The first ruling dynasty to bring a measure of political unity to the Korean peninsula (688-900 CE)
A major economic quickening that took place in China under the Song dynasty (960-1279 CE); marked by rapid population growth, urbanization, economic specialization, the development of an immense network of internal waterways, and a great increase in industrial production and innovation
ruling dynasty of China that effectively reunited the country after several centuries of political fragmentation.
Ruling dynasty of China from 618 to 907 CE; noted for its openness to foreign cultural influences
Chinese method of dealing with foreign lands and peoples that assumed the subordination of all non-Chinese authorities and required the payment of tribute: produce of value from their countries: to the Chinese emperor (although the Chinese gifts given in return were often much more valuable)
Sui emperor (r 581 - 604 CE) who particularly patronized Buddhism
major nomadic confederacy that was established ca.200 B.C.E and eventually reached from Manchuria to Central Asia.
dynasty of caliphs who ruled an increasingly fragmented Islamic state from 750 to 1258 eventually becoming a little more than figureheads.
Arabic name for Spain literally the "Land of Vandals", most of which was conquered by Arab and Berber forces in the early eighth century C.E.
great Muslim theologian, legal scholar, and Sufi mystic (1058-1111) who was credited with incorporating Sufism into mainstream Islamic thought.
ancient name of Asia minor, part of the Byzantine empire that was gradually overrun by the Turks and that now is the Republic of
the "flight" of Muhammad and his original seventy followers from Mecca to Yathrib (later Medina) in 622 C.E.; the journey marks the starting point of the Islamic calendar.
House of Wisdom
an academic center for research and translation of foreign texts that was established in Baghdad by 830 C.E.by the Abbasid caliph al-Mamun
one of the greatest polymaths of the Islamic world, a Persian who wrote prolifically on scientific (especially medical) and philosophical issues
a well-born wealthy merchant and seaman of Norwegian Viking background, led an unsuccessful expedition to establish a colony on what is now the coast of Newfoundland, Canada, in the early eleventh century C.E.
the largest religious structure in the premodern world, construction began on this temple, located in modern Cambodia in the early 1100's C.E. it was built to express a Hindu understanding of the cosmos, centered on Mt. Meru, home of the gods in Hindu tradition.
special tax paid by dhimmis in Muslim ruled territory in return for freedom to practice their own religion
formal colleges for higher instruction in the teachings if Islam as well as secular subjects, founded throughout the Islamic world beginning in the eleventh century.
Muslim king of Mali (1280-1337) who undertook a pilgrimage from his West African homeland to the Holy city of Mecca.
Pillars of Islam
the five core practices required of Muslims: a profession of faith, regular prayer, charitable giving, fasting during Ramadan, and a pilgrimage to Mecca.
also transliterated as Qur'án or Koran, this is the most holy text of Islam, recording the revelations given to the prophet Muhammad.
Islamic law, dealing with all matters of both secular and religious life.
a significant syncretic religion that evolved in India, blending elements of Islam and Hinduism; founded by Guru Nanak (1469-1539).
great city of West Africa, noted as a center of Islamic scholarship in the fourteenth century.
Islamic religious scholars.
family of caliphs who ruled the Islamic world from 661-750 C.E.
the community of all believers in Islam.
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