HS2213: Attlee mocks
Terms in this set (77)
When was the first general election after the war?
What was the Labour slogan for the 1945 general election?
Win the peace
Who was the Labour party leader that became the Labour Prime Minister?
What was the name of the 1945 Labour manifesto?
let us face the future
How many seats did Labour win in the 1945 general election?
How many seats did the Conservatives win in the general election?
What was the % of the swing from Conservative to Labour?
What was the significance of the New Jerusalem?
Perfect place for saints to dwell - was meant to be a reward for the sacrifices of war
What did Labour promise in the 1945 general election?
Cradle to crave social security. NHS, full employment and 5 million new houses
How many acts did the Labour government pass between 1945-46?
What did Matthew Fielding argue about the 1945 election?
Disillusionment from the Conservatives who were viewed as too detached from everyday life
What do Mason and Thompson argue about the 1945 election?
Tangible shift to the left shown by an increase in Labour party membership 2.6 million to 3 million
What part of the electorate switched most to the Labour party?
Soldiers such as Denis Healey
What % of Britain's total wealth did the war destroy?
What did a fall in exports and a rise in imports mean?
A deficit in the balance of payments
What did Keynes call the deficit in the balance of payments?
A financial Dunkirk
How much America loan post-war Britain?
How much did Canada loan post-war Britain?
When was the pound devalued?
What did Labour introduce in terms of economic strategy?
Regional economic strategies
What fraction of industry was nationalized by the government?
How long had the Labour party been pushing for by nationalization of industries?
Why could Labour introduced nationalization of industry in 1945?
Because they had a large enough majority and there was cross party support for nationalization
What industries were nationalized in 1946?
Bank of England, civil aviation, cable and wireless
What industries were nationalized in 1947?
Coal and railways
What industries were nationalized in 1948?
Electricity and gas
What industries were introduced in 1951?
How as nationalization of industry achieved?
Purchase of assets which were shared through the appointment of new boards of managements
Why was nationalization significant?
Government intervention in declining industries
Why was nationalization of post-war industries not necessarily about socialism?
About restoring post-war industries back to their pre-war output
When did Labour move away from nationalization to pursue a mixed economy?
What document in 1949 outlined a mixed economy?
Labour believes in Britain
Who was the architect of the NHS?
What was the NHS based upon?
The 1942 Beveridge report
Why was the NHS significant?
Marked a new level of intervention of the government in the everyday lives of citizens
When was the National Health Service Act?
Who opposed the NHS?
What did the Labour government do that was beyond the Beveridge report?
Remove all private beds by 1948
What did the NHS mean for everyday citizens?
the whole population enjoyed free at the point of use medical treatment for the first time
Regarding the NHS what changes were made in 1951?
Charges introduced for prescriptions and glasses
What did the 1945 Family Allowances Act outline?
Distribution of a set sum to help raise children
What did the 1946 National Insurance Act outline?
all persons of working age had to pay a weekly contribution and in return were entitled to a wide range of benefits
What did Kenneth Morgan say about the National Insurance Act?
Insurance provision the extent of which hadn't been seen before
What did the 1948 National Assistance Act outline?
Support and provision for those who couldn't afford insurance payments
What were the five giants Beveridge outlined that Attlee tackled?
squalor, ignorance, want, idleness, and disease
What did the 1944 Education Act Outline?
Two tier education system
Why did Historians argue that the 1944 Education Act was a failing for Labour?
Two tier education system allowed for entrenched inequality
What % of housing was destroyed during the war?
Between 1945 and 1951 how many traditional brick council houses were built?
How many houses in total were built by the Attlee administrations?
How many houses were aimed to be built by the Attlee governments?
What were the temporary housing solutions used by the government?
What did the 1949 housing act outline?
75% of local government costs for house building and 50% of private home owner costs were paid for by the government
When Seebohm Rowntree surveyed poverty in York in 1950 what % of people were found to be in absolute poverty compared to 1936?
2% compared to 36%
In 1948 what % of the industrial wage were unemployment benefits covering?
How much was the NHS costing the government per year by 1950?
What did the 1951 census reveal about levels of homelessness?
It was at 1931 levels
When was there a fuel crisis?
What caused the 1947 fuel crisis?
shortage of coal and labour as the NUM resisted hiring foreign workers which meant Labour couldn't stockpile coal
How many seats did Labour win in the 1950 general election?
How many seats did Labour win in 1951?
How many seats did the Conservatives win in 1950?
How many seats did the Conservatives win in 1951?
Why did the Conservatives win in 1951?
Poor timing, George VI concerns over slim majority, Labour old and not relevant
What was the 1950 election fought on?
plans to nationalize other private industries
What things made Labour unpopular post-1949?
'austerity' and media and party political
criticisms of bureaucracy, nationalisation, government mismanagement, red
tape, queues, shortages and rationing
What did Ralph Miliband argue about the Attlee government?
That the Attlee government wasn't socialist enough and therefore was doomed to fail
Why were many senior figures of the Attlee administration described as tired and out of ideas?
Most of the government's senior figures had been in office continually since May 1940 with little chance to recoup physically and mentally
What did John Charmley argue about the Attlee government?
'exhausted in mind, body
and manifesto commitments'
When were the constituency boundaries redrawn?
What did the constituency boundaries being redrawn in 1948 do to Labour safe seats?
Working class areas were blended with more suburban conservative voting areas
What did the Nuffield election studies find out about the impact the 1948 constituency boundaries being redrawn and the impact it had on Labour?
offered the Conservatives an advantage of about 35 seats and 500,000 votes, accounting for between one-quarter and one-half of
How many by-elections did the Conservatives win between 1945-1951?
What did Francis William's argue about the 1945 election?
Manifestation of popular support for Labour
What did The Economist argue about the 1945 election?
Britain had voted explicitly for a social programme
What did mass observation show people felt about the 1945 Labour landslide?
65% felt it indicated a desire for sweeping changes
What was culturally significant about the 1948 National Assistance Act?
Abolished the poor laws and work houses