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the sum total of the knowledge, attitudes, and habitual behavior patterns shared and transmitted by the members of a society

Folk Culture

cultural traits such as dress modes, dwellings, traditions, and institutions of usually small, traditional communities


the "traditional" usually oral literature of a society, consisiting of various genres such as myth, legend, folktale, song, proverb , and many others

Popular Culture

cultural traits such as dress, diet, and music that identify and are part of today's changable, urban-based, media-influenced western societies

Material Culture

the art, housing, clothing, sports, dances, foods, and other similar items constructed or created by a group of people

Built Environment

the human-made surroundings that provide the setting for human activity, ranging in scale from personal shelter and buildings to neighborhoods and cites, and can often include their supporting infrastructure, such as water supply or energy network

Nonmaterial Culture

the beliefs, practices, aesthics, and values of a group of people

Cultural Appropriation

the process by which cultures adopt customs and knowledge from other cultures and use them for their own benefit


the seeking out of regional culture and reinvigoration of it in response to the uncertanity of the modern world

Ethnic Neighborhoods

neighborhoods, typically situated in a larger metropolitan city and constructed by or comprised of a local culture, in which a local culture can pratice its customs


the process through which something is given monetary value; occurs when a good or idea that previously was not regarded as an object to be bought and sold is turned into something that has a particular price and that can be traded in a market economy

Distance Decay

the effects of distance on interaction, generally the greater the distance the less interaction

Time-Space Compression

refers to the social and psychological effects of living in a world in which time-space convergence has rapidly reach a high level of intensity

Time-Space Convergence

refers to the greatly accelerated movement of goods, information, and ideas during the twentieth century made possible by technological innovations in transportation and communications


with respect to popular culture, when people within a place start to produce an aspect of popular culture themselves, doing so in the context of local culture and making it their own

Hierarchial Diffusion

diffusion in which an idea or innovation spreads by passing first among the most connected places or peoples

Contagious Diffusion

distance-controlled spreading of an idea,innovation, or some other item through a local population by contract from person to person

Stimulus Diffusion

a form of diffusion in which a cultural adaption is created as a result of the introduction of a cultural trait from another place

Relocation Diffusion

sequential diffusion process in which the items being diffused are transmitted by their carrier agents as they evacuate the old areas and relocate to new ones


process through which people lose originally differentiating traits, such as dress, speech particularities or mannerisms, whenthey come into contact with another society or culture


process of adopting only certain customs that will be to their advantage

Cultural Landscape

the visible imprint of human activity and culture on the landscape

Sequent Occupance

the notion that successive societies leave their cultural imprints on a place, each contributing to the cumulative cultural landscape


the loss of uniqueness of place in the cultural landscape so that one place looks like the next

Global-Local Continuum

the notion that what happens at the global scale has a direct effect on what happens at the local scale, and vice versa


the process by which people in a local place mediate and alter regional, national, and global processes

Adaptive Strategy

a society's system of economic production

Folk-Housing Regions

a region in which the housing stock predominately reflects styles of building that are particular to the culture of the people who have long inhabited the area

Anglo-American Landscape

township and range patterns established by early settlers

Traditional Architecture

area in which structures were built as it was being established

Folk Songs

songs that are traditonally sung by the common people of a region and forms part of their culture

Folk Food

food that is tradtionally made by the common people of a region and forms part of their culture

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