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169 terms

Theories of Personality Exam 1

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goals of personality psychology
describe, explain, understand, predict
definition of psychology
refers to an individual's characteristic patterns of thought, emotion, and behavior together with the psychological mechanisms (hidden or not) behind those patterns
six perspectives of personality
psychoanalytic, psychoanalytic-social, trait, learning, cognitive social learning, humanistic
how can personality be described?
nomothetic or idiographic approach
nomothetic
groups of people
idiographic
focusing on one person
how do we understand personality dynamics?
motivation and adaptation
minnesota multi-phasic personality inventory (MMIP-2)
originally developed in late 1930; has 550 true/false statements
pyschoanalytic perspective: major assumptions
personality is dynamic, personality is determined, personality is organizational, focus is on development
three levels of consciousness (Freud)
conscious mind, preconscious mind, unconscious mind
unconscious mind
the dominant part of your mind (much of our behavior is due to forces within the unconscious)
preconscious mind
includes thoughts that you are not immediately aware of but can be brought to awareness fairly easily
conscious mind
includes what you are aware of at a given point in time and only a small part of your thoughts/memories are conscious
Freud's dream theory
Freud believed that dreams are the single, best source of information about the unconscious; dreams are highly sufficient, carefully constructed, and always contain a concealed meaning; dreams are not random
manifest content
what you remember from a dream; Freud believed that what you remembered is very deceptive and you should not take it at face value
latent content
the underlying meaning
the id and dreams
dreams are part of the primary processing of the id; the id gains strength while you are alseep
the ego and dreams
ego lessens the threat of the id's images through dream work
dream work
the process of modifying and distorting images in dreams
mechanisms of dream work
condensation, displacement, censorship, symbolic substitution
symbolic substitution
when the ego uses a symbol which substitutes for something more threatening (because the real thing would be threatening or inappropriate)
censorship
certain parts of a dream are censored, blocked out; this is why dreams are not alway sequential
displacement
involves shifting emphasis so that an important part of the dream is changed to something unimportant
condensation
when the ego combines and compresses separate thoughts into one thought
process of dream interpretation
a person reports the manifest content of the dream and then makes associations about the dream and the analysis interprets the latent content of the dream and associations (dream interpretations are alway subjective)
projects
refers to a standard set of vague stimuli, called projectives because the client is supposed to project themselves upon the stimulus and give a response that reveals something about themselves
categories of projectives
association, construction, completion, expression
projectives used for personality
projectives used to be used as primary sources of personality, now they are used more as secondary
strengths of projectives
allows clients great freedom and expression, the only assessment method that taps into the unconscious mind, still widely used today
weaknesses of projectives
reliability is only moderate, validity is generally poor, tend to be expensive to give, there are less expensive techniques that work just as well if not better
Id
represents your biological drives; only part of your personality when you are born; all about immediate gratification; lacks reason, reality and morality; works on the pleasure principle
Ego
develops within the first 2 years of life; task is to understand reality and to satisfy need appropriately in a way that promotes self-preservation; works on the reality principle; uses secondary processing (planning and decision making)
Superego
develops around age 4 or 5; the conscience (an internalization of your parent's and society's values and rules); main function is to prohibit and stop you from doing something; operates on the morality principle (doesn't take reality into account)
two domains of the superego
conscience (fosters morally correct behavior by inhibiting the id's impulses) and ego ideal (the part of your superego that promotes perfectionistic goals)
Freud's healthy personality has...?
a balance between your id, ego, and superego
Freud's anxiety theories
objective anxiety, neurotic anxiety, moral anxiety
objective anxiety
the ego's reaction to danger in your environment; functional because it serves as a warning
neurotic anxiety
comes from an id-ego conflict where the ego is trying to rain in the id and it is possible that the id is winning so the ego is starting to feel anxiety and sometimes the superego is stepping in and telling your ego that it is losing control over the id (no physical danger)
moral anxiety
results from an id-superego conflict where the superego is signaling the ego that the id is about to do something that is wrong and you can't do something that is morally incorrect
defense mechanism definition
unconscious processes that keep disturbing and unacceptable thoughts from
repression
"out of sight, out of mind"; the most important defense mechanism the ego uses; the ego pushes the threatening material into the unconscious mind where it is unavailable for recall as a way to protect it
denial
"that can't be true"; the ego is distorting reality in order to make dealing with something threatening (impulses/information) easier (differs from repression in that the source of danger is outside where for repression it isn't necessarily outside but could be bad id impulses and thoughts)
regression
"acting like a baby"; a person returns to earlier, more comforting but less mature ways of behaving; the idea is that this behavior may have been successful at an earlier stage of development but you've out grown it and when a method of coping fails you regress to an earlier method of coping that used to work
undoing
"atoning for sins"; involves an individual engaging in some sort of behavior that is designed to compensate or make amends for some unacceptable feelings or behavior
reaction formation
"expressing the opposite reaction"; dealing with unacceptable impulses by expressing the opposite feeling which is often times over emphasized and taken to an extreme in an exaggerated way
defensive projection
"pointing the finger at others"; used when the individual can't accept responsibility for his or her own negative, aggressive, sexual, unacceptable thoughts and so they repress whatever the threatening impulse, feeling, idea is, the project that impulse on to someone else because they can't take responsibility for it, and lastly you distance yourself from that person
displacement
"finding a safe and easy target"; the ego shifts the expression of an impulse from an unacceptable or threatening target to a more acceptable or less threatening target
rationalization
"saving face by using logic"; trying to make your behavior appear to be the result of logical thinking; trying to make your behavior seem rational even though much of our behavior is due to unconscious desires and impulses
sublimation
"turning bad into good"; a lot of times the energy in basic drives is unacceptable, so using this defense mechanism that energy is redirected into something socially acceptable and positive
Freud's stage's of psychosexual development: background information
one body area is the focus of each stage and these body areas are sensitive to erotic stimulation; you need to transfer your libido from one stage to the next and you transfer this energy by resolving the developmental conflict at each stage which is always between free expression of a biological impulse and parental constraints
frustration
occurs when your needs have not been satisfied in that particular stage and you want to stay in that stage until you get it satisfied
over indulgence
occurs when your needs have been satisfied too well in a stage so you don't want to move on to the next stage because you might not have your needs met as well in the next stage
fixation
if part of your libido is left behind in a stage of frustration or over indulgence
oral stage background information
begins at birth until 2 years old; focus is on satisfying the needs of the mouth; sucking (early oral) and biting and chewing (late oral)
fixation at the early oral stage
focused on sucking, these people tend to be more dependent and gullible, more likely to be a follower than a leader and to be passive; have a fondness for candy they can suck on and tend to be smokers and are fans of engaging in oral sex
fixation at the late oral stage
focused on biting and chewing, these people tend to be more sarcastic, fiercely independent, very argumentative, like to chew things
anal stage background information
begins at ages 2-3; focus is on the anus; expelling feces (early anal) and retaining feces (late anal)
fixation at the early anal stage
anal expulsive character type; messy, disorderly, wasteful, disorganized, temper tantrums, defiance, aggression
fixation at the late anal stage
anal retentive character type; neat, organized, good at saving their finances, good at delaying gratification, stubborn, passive-aggressive
phallic stage background information
begins around age 4-5; focus is on the genitalia
castration anxiety
little boys think their dad is going to cut off their penis if their dad finds out he has feelings for mom
resolution to castration anxiety
increased identification with dad
penis envy
girls assume that they have already been castrated and their mom was the one who took their penis away; this makes her feel inferior and very jealous of men that they have a penis and she doesn't; because of this girls increase their attachment to dad
fixation in the phallic stage
superego is either underdeveloped and you have a very rigid moral code or it is overdeveloped and you do not have any moral or ethical guidelines to live by at all
latency period background information
begins at age 5-6 until puberty; not technically a stage; sexual drive is dormant and your energy is channeled into school, sports, friends, etc...
genital stage background information
begins a puberty; more of a stag that you have to attain and once you have it signals maturity; Freud argues that this is less important when developing your personality because the first five years of life are most important
Freud's definition of mature sexual love
includes both feelings of lust toward someone but also feelings of genuine respect, love, and affection
Freud's definition of true maturity
to bring new life into the world to nurture and love
Freud's definition of mental health
to love and to work
psychoanalytic treatment
basic aim is to make what is unconscious, conscious and the goal is to uncover those past conflicts, resolve those conflicts, and hopefully get some of that energy that has been stuck in that stage to move on through the next stages
resistance
refers to anything that gets in the way of progress during treatment; can be conscious or unconscious
transference
allowing the client to project attitudes and feelings on to the therapist as if the therapist is an important person in the client's life
counter-transference
feelings the analyst has towards the client; important for the therapist to be aware of this
psychoanalytic therapy techniques
free association, interpretation of dreams, catharsis, interpretation, insight
free association
patient says whatever comes to mind, regardless of if it is important or not
interpretation of dreams
the patient talks about their dreams in therapy and the therapist analyzes the dream content
catharsis
a reliving of the past, repressed feelings
interpretation
when the analysis uncovered hidden meanings in what the patient says; it is important that the client is ready to hear interpretation because if it is offered too soon the client may reject it
insight
involves the patient's emotional acceptance of themselves and past issues; when the patient is talking about things and the therapist guides the discussion so the patient figures it out on their own
carl jung background information
father was a pastor who was "tormented by a lack of faith" so he was unable to answer his son's questions about religion and life; he was lonely and introverted as a child; interested in parapsychology; had a friendship with Freud however he rejected certain aspects of Freud's theories
psyche
the total of all the conscious and unconscious contents of the mind; includes conscious ego, all thoughts/feelings/memories, personal unconscious, and collective unconscious mind; energy flows continuously in various directions from the conscious to the unconscious
components of the personality: ego
the center of our consciousness, unifying force in the psyche; relationships to identity and continuity as a human being; contains conscious thoughts of behaviors and feelings; contains memories of your experiences that you can bring to mind fairly easily
components of the personalty: personal unconscious
contains things that were at one time conscious but have disappeared due to repression or because you have forgotten them
differences between jung and freud's unconscious
jung believed it is smaller in size; jung argued that it is retrospective and prospective; jung believed that it contains a number of complexes (ie. mother complex, money complex, etc...)
components of the personality: collective unconscious
refers to a storehouse of ancestral experiences; collective experiences that all humans have had in their evolutionary past; the contents of the collective unconscious are the same for everyone
collective unconscious: common archetypes
shadow, anima, animus, persona, hero
shadow
the dark side of the personality; all of your inferiorities; it is what causes us to do what we do when "the devil made us do it"
anima
the representation of woman in man, the feminine side of man that causes men to have feminine traits; it provides the framework within which men interact with women
animus
the representation of man in woman, the masculine side of women; gives women masculine traits; provides the framework that guides her relationships with men
persona
similar to a mask; the different identities that we take on because of the different roles we play in society
hero
the hero is always defeating evil, often times suffers punishment for someone else, rescues people, etc...
two attitudes
extraversion (orients people toward external, objective world) and introversion (orients people toward the inner, subjective world)
four functions
sensation, thinking, feeling, intuition
sensation
the initial concrete experiencing of a phenomenon; not thinking or feeling anything about it, just establishing what is there and there is no reaction to it
thinking
interpret and understand the meaning of what is being perceived
feeling
evaluating the desirability or pleasantness of what is being perceived
intuition
when you form a hunch or form a conclusion without using any of the other functions; not thinking about it or evaluating your feelings, more of a gut feeling/reaction
the combination of two attitudes and four functions
both attitudes are present in everyone, however, one tends to be more dominant and conscious and the other is subordinate and unconscious; everyone has the capacity to use all four functions, but one becomes more highly differentiated and becomes superior to the others
psychoanalytic-social perspective: major assumptions
emphasis on ego, description of self, importance of interpersonal relationships, importance of social and cultural factors
alfred adler: background information
second of six children; he always felt like he was in the shadow of his successful older brother; suffered a sickly childhood; was a mediocre student in school and his teachers told his dad that he wasn't cut out for college but he used that motivation to eventually rise to the top of his class; had a nine year association with Freud and met weekly to discuss psychoanalysis; later he became a vocal critic of Freud
social interest
adler assumed that humans are motivated by this; people have an innate potential for relating to others, a kinship to humanity; believes that this is a major role in personality development
tasks of life
occupational, societal, and love
occupational tasks
refers to choosing a vocation which in turn allows that person to have feelings of self worth to the society
societal tasks
refers to friendship, cooperation, having empathy or others; the idea of getting along well with others
love tasks
refers to the relationship between the sexes and finding a significant other
struggle from inferiority to superiority
adler believed that to be a human means to feel inferior and when you feel this way it generates a struggle for perfection and to stop feeling inferior; all personality development comes from feelings of helplessness and inferiority; progress in life is always from a minus to a plus state
style of life
refers to the unique ways that people pursue their goals; everyone has the same goal of superiority
when your style of life is formed
adler believed that is is formed by the time you are 4-5 and impacts how your achieve your goals for the rest of your life
problematic styles of life
negative childhood experiences, parental neglect, parental overindulgence
mistake styles of life
ruling type, getting type, avoiding type
ruling type
people who seek control to dominate others; people are selfish, vain, and overly competitive
getting type
people are dependent, passive, and possibly depressed
avoiding type
people who try to isolate themselves from others, avoid any kind of conflict or problems because if you engage in relationships with others you are going to have conflict
only children stereotypes
spoiled, selfish and self-centered, sense of entitlement, unrealistic sense of their worth, overly attached to mom, lacking social skills because they don't have built-in playmates
first-born children stereotypes
independent, bossy and dominating, protective, responsible; "dethroned" when the next sibling comes and they usually don't like to share the attention
second-born children stereotypes
competitive with other siblings, envious of first-born, more likely to be rebellious, least likely to be spoiled
youngest children stereotypes
outgoing and popular with peers, able to "get away" with the most things, more dependent and spoiled, often a problem child
only children research findings
parents have high expectations (which affect the children); parents are more affectionate but also more punitive with them; score higher on intelligence tests; tend to be more conforming to both parent's and other adult's requests and expectations
later-born children research findings
parent's generally have more realistic expectations; tend to be more relaxed with their discipline; children are less concerned about pleasing the adults around them and so they tend to be more popular and have more peer support and succeed more in peer relationships
spacing and gender of children
research suggests that if children are spaced 5 years or more apart they function like only children; if you are the only girl in a family of all boys, she'll get extra attention regardless of birth order
erik erikson: background information
abandoned by his father before he was born, he was raised by his mother and his jewish stepfather; wasn't a good student in school and decided not to go to college; got involved in psychology because he painted portraits of children and met up with Anna Freud and she asked him if he'd be interested in child psychoanalysis; became the first child analysis in Boston in 1933; ended up teaching at Yale, Cal Berkley, and Harvard without a college degree
psychosocial
refers to a union of your physical needs as well as cultural environmental forces that have an affect on the individual
stages of psychosocial development
at each stage there are two opposing poles, if you successfully resolve the crisis at each stage it helps you move along in terms of gain a sense of identity and sense of self; you want a favorable ratio where you have more of the good pole and less of the bad pole
first stage: basic trust vs. mistrust
begins at birth to 18 months; trust results from infant's sense that it can count on satisfaction of its needs; mistrust results when the infant feels abandoned and helpless and not getting its needs met
basic trust vs. mistrust strength
hope, the enduring belief that basic satisfactions are attainable and continues with you for the rest of your life
second stage: autonomy vs. shame and doubt
occurs around 18 months to 2-3 years; the development of motor skills leads to independence and feelings of power; shame and doubt is the idea that even though you can do a lot of things yourself, you still have to depend on others for a lot of things (also the loss of self-control)
autonomy vs. shame and doubt strength
will power, the ability to make choices and demonstrate independence while still taking into consideration other people's needs
third stage: initiative vs. guilt
occurs at age 3-4; appearance of conscience puts a restrain on your behaviors and you start to consider consequences; initiative means acting on your desires and potentials; guilt refers to when you are unable to restrain by initiatives
initiative vs. guilt strength
purpose, which is the "courage to pursue valued goals guided by conscience but not paralyzed by guilt"
fourth stage: industry vs. inferiority
age 5 through puberty; focus is on performance in school; industry refers to a child applying themselves to learning; inferiority refers to the child perceiving their skills/status to be inferior to their peers; parents and teachers determine how well children perceive their abilities
industry vs. inferiority strength
competence, the skill and intelligence in pursuing and completing tasks
fifth stage: identity vs. role confusion
occurs during puberty; identity refers to the confidence that others see us as we see ourselves; role confusion refers to the way you see yourself is very different as other's see you
identity vs. role confusion strength
fidelity, (according to erikson) this is the cornerstone to personality and identity
sixth stage: intimacy vs. isolation
occurs at the end of adolescence to age 35; establishing independence from your parents, begin functioning as a mature, responsible adult which means getting a job, establishing intimate relationships, becoming financially independent; intimacy is the capability to commit to a relationship without losing your identity; isolation occurs if a young adult cannot commit to such relationships
intimacy vs. isolation strength
love, you need to love and be happy with yourself first before you can commit and love someone else
seventh stage: generativity vs. stagnation
occurs from age 35 to 55/65; generativity refers to the concern with establishing and guiding the next generation, if you fail to do this you have stagnation
ways to achieve generativity
be a good parent, be in a profession that helps or guides people, volunteer in schools or participate in intern programs, become a coach for younger people
generativity vs. stagnation strength
care, a broadening concern for the future generation
eight stage: ego integrity vs. despair
occurs after age 55/65 until death; integrity refers to having something of interest and value to share with the next generation, being able to give up leadership in the present; despair refers to the feeling that time is too short to achieve integrity and the feeling that you've done nothing in your life of any importance
ways to achieve integrity
must do more than just reflect on the past; have to remain active participants in life and seek out challenges and stimulation; do volunteer work and develop new interests
ego integrity vs. despair strength
wisdom, an active concern with life in the face of death
important characteristics of marcia's four identity status
exploration and commitment
exploration
when the adolescent is consciously choosing among various alternatives
commitment
psychological investment in a course of action or ideology
identity achievement
exploration yes, commitment yes; explored all options and then made a commitment
identity foreclosure
exploration no, commitment yet; exploration is absent but commitment is present
diffusion
no exploration and no commitment
moratorium
exploration is present but commitment is absent
karen horney: background information
father was a sea captain and education was for men, however her mom supported her desires for education; goal was to study medicine; moved to US in 1932 to escape her unhappy marriage, here she broke from Freud's ideas and started questioning his ideas
horney's concept of penis envy
argued that only neurotic women have penis envy and doesn't mean that all women are jealous or want a penis; argued that it was a reflection of the era, they weren't jealous of the penis, they were jealous of the symbol of the penis
womb envy
men are envious of women because women are able to give birth and men are not; men have such a small role in act of creating life compared to women; men overcompensate for this by achieving success at work
neurotic needs
coping techniques that begin in childhood and develop in response to basic anxiety; we all manifest neurotic needs to some degree, needs become neurotic when a person clings to them and becomes rigid to using needs to cope in an inflexible, nontransient way
affection and approval
striving to be liked and pleasing to other people, want to live up to expectations of others; dread is assertiveness and anger
having a "partner"
seeking to be taken over by another through love, overvalues love and really wants to be consumed by someone else in a love relationships; dread is being alone
narrowly restricting one's life
trying to be undemanding and inconspicuous, to be content with little, values modesty; dread is being a bother or a burden
power
seeking domination and control over others; dread is weakness and that you are not in control
exploiting others
taking advantage of other people, using other people, trying to figure out how you can always gain from interactions; dread is being seen as either stupid or gullible
social recognition or prestige
seeking public acceptance; dread is humiliation
personal achievement
striving to be the best, being ambitious, enjoying defeating others; dread is failure
personal admiration
a self inflating sense of admiration, want admiration for an idealized self-interest and that you are better than you really are; dread is being seen as human or as someone with flaws who is imperfect
self sufficiency/independence
trying to not need other people and maintain distance, longer, don't want to have to need anyone; dread is closeness
perfection
being drive towards superiority, fearful of making mistakes, constantly searching for their own mistakes so they can fix them or cover them up before other people realize it; dread is flaws and criticism
moving toward people
(affection and approval, having a partner, narrowly restricting one's life) compliant type of people
moving against people
(power, exploiting others, social recognition or prestige, personal achievement) aggressive type of people
moving away from people
(personal admiration, self sufficiency/independence, perfection) detached type of people
jealousy definition
fear of losing a relationship that is seen as the best available means of satisfying an insatiable concern for affection and incessant demands for unconditional love
morbid jealousy
these people show a fear of losing someone's love that is out of proportion
object relations theory major assumption
emphasis on interpersonal relationships; most important part of life is our relationships, emotionally important people are called "objects"; we can only relate to other people via the images that we hold of them in our minds
four principle themes of object relations theory
every relationship has in it elements of satisfaction and frustration or pleasure and pain, every relationship mixes love and hate (it is inevitable), an important distinction needs to be made between parts of the love object and the whole person (may be impossible to actually love the whole person because you are always focusing on the parts that benefit you personally), the psyche of the baby and the adult is aware of and disturbed by these contradictory feelings