A Soviet leader during the Cuban Missile Crisis. Also famous for denouncing Stalin and allowed criticism of Stalin within Russia.
social process of neutralizing the influence of Joseph Stalin by revising his policies and removing monuments dedicated to him and renaming places named in his honor
the process of creating a government elected by the people
A policy initiated by Mikhail Gorbachev that involved restructuring of the social and economic status quo in communist Russia towards a market based economy and society
President of the Russian Republic in 1991. Helped end the USSR and force Gorbachev to resign.
elected president of Russia in 2000, launched reforms aimed at boosting growth and budget revenues and keeping Russia on a strong economic track.
American policy of resisting further expansion of communism around the world
A policy of reducing Cold War tensions that was adopted by the United States during the presidency of Richard Nixon.
Osama bin Laden
(1957-) Founder of al Qaeda, the terrorist network responsible for the attacks of September 11, 2001, and other attacks.
A network of Islamic terrorist organizations, led by Osama bin Laden, that carried out the attacks on the US embassies in Tanzania and Kenya in 1998, the USS Cole in Yemen in 2000, and the World Trade Center and the Pentagon in 2001
Was a dictator in Iraq who tried to take over Iran and Kuwait violently in order to gain the land and the resources. He also refused to let the UN into Iraq in order to check if the country was secretly holding weapons of mass destruction.
Weapons of Mass Destruction (WMDs)
Biological, chemical, or nuclear weapons that can cause a massive number of deaths in a single use.
A doctrine under which certain federal laws preempt, or take precedence over, conflicting state or local laws.
An economic system in which the government controls a country's economy.
Communist Party leader who forced Chinese economic reforms after the death of Mao Zedong.
Socialist Market Economy
market economy that combines substantial state ownership of large industries with private enterprise, where both forms of ownership operate in a free-pricing market environment
Household Responsibility System
the system put into practice in China beginning in the early 1980s in which major decisions about agricultural production are made by individual farm families based on profit motive rather than by a people's commune or the government.
Special Economic Zones (SEZs)
Region offering special tax breaks, eased environmental restrictions, and other incentives to attract foreign business and investment.
demonstration by students intellectuals criticizing corruption and demanding democratic reforms, government responded by sending army in to cease protests who killed hundreds of citizens
Organization whose leader overrides the sovereignty of its individual members
Allows separate systems to communicate directly with each other, eliminating the need for manual entry into multiple systems
Actions or processes that involve the entire world and result in making something worldwide in scope.
divisions based on ethnic or cultural identity
The World Wide Trade Organization
Established in 1995; The ____ is an organization where state members agree on world trade among nations
The World Bank
an organization whose main aims are to provide aid and advice to developing countries, as well as reducing poverty levels and encouraging and safeguarding international investment.
An international organization of European countries formed after World War II to reduce trade barriers and increase cooperation among its members.
North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA)
Agreement signed on January 1, 1994, that allows the opening of borders between the United States, Mexico, and Canada.
More Developed Countries (MDCs)
A country that has progressed far in development.
Less Developed Countries (LDCs)
Also known as a developing country, a country that is at a relatively early stage in the process of economic developement.
rapid economic and political change that transforms a country into a stable nation
The modernization model maintains that all countries go through five interrelated stages of development, which culminate in an economic state of self-sustained economic growth and high levels of mass consumption
a model of economic and social development that explains global inequality in terms of the historical exploitation of poor nations by rich ones
economic systems in which the government largely decides what goods and services will be produced, who will get them, and how the economy will grow
Individuals make their own decisions about what to produce, how to produce it, and for whom to produce it.
An economy in which private enterprise exists in combination with a considerable amount of government regulation and promotion.
recreation of market forces of supply and demand
To change from government or public ownership or control to private ownership or control.
Human Rights Movement
changing the way society views the rights of all of its members including minorities, clients with terminal illness (euthanasia), pregnant women, and older adults
Universal Declaration of Human Rights
A 1948 statement in which the United Nations declared that all human beings have rights to life, liberty, and security.
Non-governmental Organizations (NGOs)
A private sector organization that does not primarily aim to make a profit. Instead, they operate for the benefit of others in society.
A cultural movement embracing human empowerment and rejecting traditionalism as outdated.
In culture it is associated with surfaces and superficial style including self-conscious parody and quotation. It is a reaction to the naive confidence in progress and also confidence in objective of scientific truth.
The spread of western culture
Domination of one culture over another by a deliberate policy or by economic or technological superiority.
Gloabal Pop Cultural
Global Elite Culture
At the begining of the twenty-first century, the attitudes and outlook of well-educated, propserous, Western-oriented people around the world, largely expressed in European languages, especially English.
A strong feeling of pride in and devotion to one's country
Politicization of Religon
Use of religious principles to promote political ends