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ANTH 360 FINAL
Terms in this set (91)
LeFort 1 Fracture
Fracture resulting in the separation of the alveolar area of the maxilla from the rest of the bone
LeFort 2 Fracture
Fracture resulting in the separation of the mid-face from the rest of the bone
LeFort 3 Fracture
Fracture resulting in the separation of the entire face from the cranial vault
Fractures resulting in the separation of part or all of the face from the rest of the skull
Speed of Force
A faster speed of force will penetrate the bone and cause a complete fracture, a slower speed will cause an infraction or divot
Occurs on long bones around the site of bullet impact on the diaphysis; it appears as lozenge-shaped lines extending along the long axis of the bone
Defensive wounds, occur when an individual uses his/her arm to shield a blow to the face/head
Cuts to the bone that are longer than they are wide, result from forces applied across bone with a long, sharp edge
A notch in the bone by vertically applied dynamic sharp force, usually the result of hacking actions with such implements as axes, meat cleavers, and machetes. The wound is long, relatively wide, and deep, exhibits fracture lines and wastage
Injury to bone caused by the vertical impact of a pointed instrument
The fracturing of what bone can provide osteological evidence for strangulation?
T/F Slow poisoning, like from heavy metals, can NOT be detected from the bone in postmortem chemical analyses?
Pathological conditions that take the form of excess bone being deposited at various locations throughout the skeleton
Osteophytes: Spurs of bone
Button Osteoma: Skull growth
Pathological conditions that involve an abnormal loss of bone, that is, erosion and/or destruction of cortical or trabecular bone
Anemia Forms (Iron deficiency)
Poratic Hyperostosis: affects bones of the cranial vault, localized areas of spongy or porous bone tissue
Pathological condition that involves abnormal contours or shapes of bones, caused by osteoporosis or heavy lifting; rickets (insufficient vitamin D in children) are the most well known type
Osteomalacia: Adult version of rickets
A condition in which small spurs or ridges of bone (osteophytes) project from an area that is normally smooth or flat
Part of Occupational Stress
Linked with Osteoarthritis
Cavitations on the superior and inferior surfaces of the vertebral bodies
This bony outgrowth covering the external auditory meatus (opening of the ear) is commonly linked to what occupation/activity?
Divers (especially those who dive in cold water)
Skeletal conditions that deviate from the normal or standard fo the particular bone
Pathological condition in which the vertebral column exhibits lateral curvatures
Name of the common non fusion anomaly of the cranium?
Metopism (persistence of the metopic suture in adulthood)
How can you tell a break represents a postmortem fracture?
Color of break different from surrounding bone
What do closely grouped puncture marks represent?
Carnivore postmortem damage
What does fire damage look like?
Bone is discolored with brown and gray coloration, exhibits some checkerboard cracking
T/F Can a facial reproduction by itself can establish a positive identification?
Which technique is more accurate for identifying tissues thickness at specific points on the skull, thin blade/needle or ultrasound/CT/MRI technology?
What are the three sources of tissue thickness variation according to your textbook?
Ancestral groups, sex, body type
Despite their usefulness, why might authorities choose not to use facial reproductions in their search for missing individuals?
The process of facial reproduction is rather slow and expensive, and requires someone with specialized skills that may be hard to find or expensive to hire
What characteristics of the skeleton indicate someone of a greater living weight?
Skeletal robusticity, skeletal stature, muscle markings
T/F According to your textbook, handedness can be determined with accuracy by identifying the side with the largest and most modified arm bones
Through the years three persons have gained prominence as being particularly skilled in bringing facial reproductions to life, who are they?
Betty Pat Gatliff
T/F Body weight can be determined only within a broad range, this is done by observations as well as by measurements and weights of specific bones within the skeleton
Blunt Trauma: Size
-Size of object causing blunt trauma includes its length and width
-Unless long axis of an instrument makes a clear imprint on bone, it usually can't be estimated on an objective scale
-Narrow or wide, short or long can be determined, but not to exact inches or centimeters
-Narrow width instruments need less force to cause a fracture than wide
Blunt Trauma: Shape
-Shape of instrument causing trauma refers to both its cross-sectional outline and its longitudinal configuration, two cross-sectional shapes are recognized: round and angular.
-Round= bat, bottle, clubs
-Angular= lumber, crowbar. Angular instruments are more likely to inflict an injury with distinct edges or leave an imprint, and fewer fractures
Specifically identify the causative instrument, imprint or surface of instrument is clearly visible in affected tissue
Blunt Trauma: Weight
-Weight can only be estimated from the resultant injury into categories such as heavy or light
-Light objects will cause smaller injuries with fewer fracture lines
-Weight doesn't apply in collisions or matter in falls
Bow Fracture (Plastic Deformation)
Incomplete fracture cause by compression along the long axis of a bone, most common in child's forearm
Bone Bruise (Occult Intraosseous Fracture)
Incomplete fracture not often seen in forensic context, they appear to be microfractures to trabecular bone due to compressive forces, visible in radiographs or MRI's
Incomplete fracture that is the result of compressive forces that cause an outward buckling of the cortex around the circumference of a bone, mostly seen at the juncture between metaphyses and their epiphyses
Incomplete transverse fracture to long bones, break in bone where separation between the broken ends does not occur; most common in subadults
An oblique or spiral fracture where the ends do not separate; most common in lower limbs (especially the tibia) of infants and toddlers
Incomplete fracture caused by compressive forces which split a bone along its long axis
A break identifiable by segments of bone that point inwardly; most common in the skull due to compressive forces
Complete fracture that crosses the diaphysis at right angles to the long axis of the bone; most common in long bones often caused by a bending or shearing force
Complete fracture that passes through the shaft of the bone at an angle approx. 45 degrees, bending force causes the bone to fail transversely, while a compression force causes the bone to fail linearly
Complete fracture that is caused by excessive torsional force on a bone, spirals along the long axis of the bone producing oblique-like break around bone axis
Bone break that results in the production of multiple fragments on bone (Butterfly Fracture and Segmental Fracture)
A type of fracture resulting in three segments of bone, a medial and lateral piece, which are separated by a section between their two ends
Type of break that can separate epiphysis from their respective metaphyses and divide either of these structures into two or more pieces; most common in subadults
Result of narrowly focused, dynamic compression forces applied to the surface of a bone; either a puncture, incision, or cleft
Lines etched into the bone by the passage of the instrument, run parallel to the direction of the applied force, these are small when the instrument is finely honed, but large with dull or serrated blades
Fragments separated from the main section of the bone; most commonly associated with clefts from heavy chopping instruments
This type of death takes three forms; hanging, ligature, and manual; main consequence of strangulation is the fracturing of hyoid bone
Can take days to weeks, can be determined by examining hair, nails, and bone for toxic substances
Most common forms of lytic lesions of bone?
Porosity due to anemia and areas of local bone death (necrosis)
Most common proliferative lesions?
Striations on bone, called generalized bone disease, and calluses around healing fractures
Four Forms of Skeletal Anomalies
Four Types of Lesions due to Occupational Stress
-Modification to areas of insertion
What can cause postmortem damage?
Any number of sources included, human, nonhuman, heat (fire), weathering, burial, and water
Most common form of human-caused postmortem damage?
Dismemberment to prevent identification or to show disregard for victim
What characteristics should you look for in dismemberment cases?
Number of cuts, type of saw, direction of cut
Carnivores and other animals can cause what type of postmortem damage?
Splintering and bone loss
Burned Postmortem Changes
Charring, discoloration, warping, shrinking
Characteristics of Weathering
Cracking (mosaic or along long axis) and warping (bending/twisting around bone axis)
Burial damage is similar to what other kind of damage?
Weathering and low-temperature burning
-Last resort if a search of missing person files has not received a match
-General approach is to mold and cast original skull, apply spacers that indicate tissue thickness at various places, and fill in with clay
-Standard of tissue thickness based on averages taken at specific points on crania
-More modern methods uses computer software
-Handedness can NOT be determined by comparing dimensions of right and left upper limb bones
-Body weight can only be determined within a broad range by observation, measurement, and weighing certain bones
Two Types of Identification?
Positive and probable
Obtaining an Identification
-Any unique skeletal characteristics documented in antemortem records and present postmortem
-Radiographs of sinuses
-Dental remains requires comparison of antemortem records and configuration of amalgams (fillings)
-DNA from relatives
-Identification by exclusion (multiple bodies)
3 ethics forensic anthropologists are guided by?
Honesty (deriving as much info from the skeleton as can be determined without exceeding the bounds of forensic anth knowledge)
Concluding a Case
-Final report should include all info useful to law enforcement
-Must be aware of difference between evidence and opinion
-Courtroom appearances are not common, but forensic anths must be aware of steps involved in offering expert testimony in court
-Forensic anthropology is becoming more acceptable to law while becoming less acceptable to people in academics
The study of ancient suffering
ology=The study of
Paleopathology: Antemortem Changes
-Primarily with trauma and chronic conditions
-200 yrs or older
-Reconstruct history/ geography/ interaction/ evolution of disease
-4 diagnostic criteria:
Appearance of lesion
Location of lesion
Distribution on individual
Primary Data Sources
Gross level Bone
Gross level Teeth
Soft tissue (mummified or preserved), useful with heart disease
Coprolites = ancient parasitic diseases (feces)
Secondary Data Sources
Artifacts and tomb paintings (some ancient drawings have similar looking diseases like leprosy, measles and pox)
Where bone/skeleton was found? What size? How is the bone affected? Use photos, writing, and documentation
In what 3 ways can bone change?
1 Bone Addition
2 Bone Removal
-Periosteal (outer membrane of bone)
-Cortex (I believe refers to the Cortical bone)
-Endosteal (inner surface of long bones)
-What are these: Different areas of the bone that may have bone loss, look at extent, size, focal area/diffusion, in other words Periosteum (outer membrane of bone), Endosteum (inner surface of long bones), and Cortex I believe refers to the Cortical bone
3 Abnormal Shape
Infection of the compact bone
Infection of the periosteum that will affect the outside surface of the bone
-Inflammation of bone usually caused by pathogenic organism
-Pathogen causes formation of abscess with bone and accumulation of pus
-Primarily affects inner surface (endosteal)
-Redness, swelling, tender, fever, open sores, hot
-Abscesses, bone death, resorption, rapid regeneration (all of bone)
-Swollen moth eaten appearance
-"Cottage cheese look"
-First stage is a sore, Second is a rash, Third stage affects internal organs (brain, heart, nervous system, and bone)
-Congenital syphilis: born with it
-You can track it through teeth
-People left untreated will go crazy
-AKA "white plague" or "consumption" -- is the "Disease of the poor"
-Contracted from infected fluids
-All primates and mammals can contract it
-Can live 40 days to 8 months outside of host
-Someone can be infected but not display symptoms
-Lung is area most affected, called pulmonary tuberculosis
-Attacks spine and weight bearing joints, lumbar is primary part of spine affected, body of vertebra will collapse
-Can cause abnormal shape of spinal cord
-Slow developing disease
-Spread via respiratory droplets
-Skin to skin contact
-First appears lytic (specific changes)
-Over time, vary by causative factors, from endocrine disturbances and nutritional deficiencies to congenital deformities and infectious diseases
-Bone fracture caused by disease that led to weakness of the bone
-Infections or osteoporosis leads to bones breaking easily
-Bone growth/loss due to specific everyday life activities that cause stress to the skeleton
-Markers of occupational stress are those bone conditions that appear to be caused by atypical body movements
-Degeneration of joint cartilage and the underlying bone
-Most common form of arthritis, mostly occurs from middle age on
-Pain and stiffness, most affected areas are hip, knee, and thumb joint
-"Skeletal anomalies" in the book
-Anomalies in the normal anatomy of the skeleton
-Not measurable and are simply a genetic origin
-Original owner of the bones would not have been aware of the majority of such 'abnormalities'
-Not normally pathological, just genetic
-Part of individual variation that makes the bones distinct when identifying a person
-AKA wormian bones
-Mistaken for perimortem but lines are not radiating so they are not fractures
-Most common in lambdoid suture (back of skull)
-Non fused ossification centers that unite with age
-Spondylosis (axial skeleton)
-Bipartite Patella (knee caps)
-Congenital Pseudathrosis (clavicle)
Examples of Bone Modifications
-"Deer Flute femur" = carvings on bone
-Hand mutilation (removing digit, shaming)
-Changing bone shape over time (corsets)
-America mods (high-heels long term and ballerinas, osteoarthritis in knee)
-Cranial deformations: elongated skulls, accidental from cradle boarding, Chinook flatheads
Examples of Tooth Modifications
-Dental ablation = removing teeth (violent, shaming, or for aesthetic purposes)
-Different dentition styles represent different African regions (the historic "grills")
-960-1280 peak years
-Ideal size was 3 inches
-Called "golden lotus" for being "flower-like" symbol of beauty and wealth
-Wealthy families started binding ages 3-5, lower/middle class started binding age ~13 (need for female labor)
-Distribution by region, in North with dry wheat fields easier for women to work than South with wet rice fields
-Outlawed in 1912
-Also affects shape of ankles, curve of lower spine, you are much more likely to fall
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